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garrison, seeing no hope of succour, surrendered it to the king of France on having their lives and fortunes spared, and liberty for such as pleased to depart in safety, with the exception of those who had been concerned in the murder of duke John of Burgundy, should any such be found within the town. The inhabitants, and those men at arms who should remain, were to take oaths of obedience to the king of France. The greater part of them, however, made oath to the English, and pretended to wear the red cross, notwithstanding which they again turned to the dauphin. When the town of Sens had been re-garrisoned, the besiegers departed for Montereau-faut-Yonne. During their stay at Sens, master Eustace de Lactre, chancellor of France, died there : he had been for a long time the principal adviser of the duke of Burgundy. Master John le Clerc, president of the parliament, was appointed chancellor in his stead. At the beginning of the month of June, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy formed the siege of the town and castle of Montereau, and were for some time employed before it with their engines to batter down the walls and gates. The governor of the place for the dauphin was sir Pierre de Guitry", having under his command five hundred combatants, who made a gallant defence, killing and wounding many of the assailants: among the first was sir Butor bastard of Croy, a valiant knight, and expert man-at-arms. This, however, did not avail them much, for on St. John Baptist's day, some English and Burgundians assembled without orders from their prince, and made an attack on the town at several places at once, and continued it so long, that they forced an entrance into it, without meeting with any great resistance from the besieged. They then advanced toward the castle, whither the greater part of the Dauphinois had retreated, and drove the remainder before them, not, however, without loss, for they had hastened with such impatience that many fell into the ditches and were drowned, and from sixteen to twenty were made prisoners, the most part gentlemen. By this conquest, the besieged were more alarmed than before. The king of England quartered a large detachment from his army in the town, fronting the castle; and when this had been done, some of the duke of Burgundy's people, by the direction of the women of the town, went to the spot where duke John had been buried, and instantly placed over the grave a mourning cloth, and lighted tapers at each end of it. On the morrow, by orders of the duke of Burgundy, several noble knights and esquires of his household were sent thither to raise the corpse and to examine it. On their arrival, they had the body dug up, but in truth it was a melancholy sight, for he had still on his pourpoint and drawers; and there was not a man present that could refrain from weeping. The body was again put into a leaden coffin, filled with salt and spices, and carried to Burgundy, to be interred in the convent of the Carthusians without Dijon, which was founded by his father duke Philip, by whose side it was placed, according to the orders of the duke his son. While the siege of Montereau was carrying on, Charles king of France and his ministers sent copies of the treaty of peace to Paris, and to all the bailiwicks, provostships, and seneschalships of the realm, that it might be proclaimed in the places where proclamations had been usually made. After the capture of the town of Montereau, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy decamped with the army, and, crossing the Seine by a newlyerected bridge, encamped between the two rivers Seine and Yonne, and more effectually surrounded the castle with their warlike engines to batter it down. The king of England sent all the prisoners from the town under a good escort, to hold a parley with those in the castle, from the ditches, to prevail on the governor to surrender the place. When within hearing they fell on their knees, and pitifully implored him to surrender, for by so doing he would save their lives, and that he could not much longer hold out, considering the large force that was before it. The governor replied, that they must do the best they could, for that he would not surrender. The prisoners, having no longer hopes of life, asked to speak with their wives, or friends and relatives, that were in the castle; and they took leave of each other with many tears and lamentations. When they were brought back to the army,

Q. If not William de Chaumont, lord of Guitry, and grand-master of waters and forests. in 1424, by Charles rounsellor and chamberlain to the king, and captain of VII. His son Charles was killed at the battle of Werneuil Sens and Auxerre P He was made count de Chaumont, in 1423.

the king of England ordered a gallows to be erected, and had them all hanged in sight of those
within the castle. The king likewise hanged a running footman, who always followed him
when he rode, holding the bridle of his horse. He was a great favourite of the king's, but
having killed a knight in a quarrel, was thus punished.
The castle did not hold out more than eight days after this, when the governor offered to
surrender it on condition that the lives and fortunes of the garrison should be spared, and
that they should march freely away, with the exception of any who had been concerned in
the murder of duke John of Burgundy, who were to remain until the king's pleasure should
be known. The lord de Guitry was much blamed by both parties for having suffered the
prisoners to be put to death, and holding out so few days after. He was also accused of
being concerned in the murder of the duke of Burgundy, but offered to prove his innocence
by combating a gentleman of duke Philip's household called William de Biere. In the end,
Guitry exculpated himself, and nothing further was done. He carried away his garrison to
the dauphin. So soon as the king of England had re-garrisoned and supplied the town and
castle of Montereau with stores and provision, he made preparations to lay siege to the town
of Melun, and while these things were passing, the king and queen of France and the queen
of England resided at Bray-sur-Seine, with their households.


In these days, the town of Willeneuve-le-Roi, seated on the river Yonne, was surprised by scalado, by a party of Burgundians; in which place were killed and taken many who supported the dauphin's party. At this time also the duke of Bedford joined his brother the king of England with eight hundred men-at-arms and two thousand archers. They were joyfully received by the king, his brothers, and the duke of Burgundy, whose army was greatly strengthened by this reinforcement. The dauphin was not idle on his side: he had marched a considerable force into Languedoc, and laid siege to the town of the Pont du St. Esprit, on the Rhône, which was garrisoned by the prince of Orange's men for the duke of Burgundy. He pointed against it many engines that had been sent him from Avignon and Provence, and pressed the place so much that it surrendered. In like manner he subdued the greater part of the towns and castles in Languedoc that were attached to the Burgundian party through the influence of the prince of Orange, and having placed therein sufficient garrisons and expert commanders, he returned to Bourges in Berry, where he assembled a very large army, to enable him to oppose the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, who he knew were preparing to conquer all towns and castles that were attached to him.

At this time, also, the holy father the pope ordered a croisade to be undertaken against Bohemia, the leaders of which were, the archbishop of Cologne, the bishop of Liege, the archbishop of Treves, the bishop of Mentz, count Louis du Rhin, and many other great lords of upper Germany, and from the adjoining parts. They entered the country near Prague, where they committed great devastations, and took a strong castle called Nansonne", and the well-fortified town of Culhue *, as well as some others. However, great numbers of this army quitted it and returned home, because it seemed to them that their leaders were too avaricious. The cardinal duke of Bar, with his nephew, Réné d'Anjou, son of his sister and the late king Louis of Sicily, whom he had declared his heir to the duchy of Bar, having already given him the marquisate du Pont, besieged with a powerful force the town and castle of Ligny-en-Barrois, the principal town of that country, because John of Luxembourg had not performed his duty as guardian to the young count de St. Pol, by doing homage, neither had it been done by duke John of Brabant, brother to the count. Those within the town were partisans of the Burgundy faction, while the cardinal and his country were of the

* I have looked into L'Enfant's “Guerre des Hussites,” but cannot find mention made of these places, or any of similar sound.

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opposite party. When the siege had been continued some time, the place submitted to the obedience of the cardinal, who placed therein his own garrison and officers. Nevertheless, by some negotiations between the parties, the town, castle, and country, were afterward restored to the young count de St. Pol, who again garrisoned it with his own people.


We must now return to the kings of France and England, and the duke of Burgundy, who having conquered Montereau advanced to Melun to lay siege thereto, as it held out for the dauphin. They surrounded it on all sides with their army; and the king of France, accompanied by the two queens, went to fix his residence at Corbeil. King Henry, with his brothers, the duke of Bavaria, surnamed le Rouge, his brother-in-law", and his other princes, were encamped toward the Gâtinois; duke Philip of Burgundy, with all his men, the earl of Huntingdon, and some other English captains, were encamped on the opposite side toward Brie. The besiegers exerted themselves to the utmost to annoy the enemy, and pointed various engines of war, cannons, bombards, and such like, to batter down the walls of the town, which was commanded by the lord de Barbasan, a noble vassal, subtle, expert, and renowned in arms. He had with him sir Pierre de Bourbon, lord de Préaulx, and another of the name of Bourgeois, with a garrison of from six to seven hundred combatants. They showed every appearance of making a vigorous defence against all the attacks of the besiegers; but, notwithstanding their exertions, the town was approached by the enemy to the very walls, by means of mines and other subtleties of war, so that their fortifications were much damaged. On the other side of the town, the duke of Burgundy, by an unexpected and well-concerted attack, gained a strong bulwark which the besieged had erected without the ditches, and which sorely annoyed the Burgundians; the duke, after the capture, fortified it against the town, and posted guards in it night and day. A bridge of boats was also thrown over the Seine, by which a free communication was opened between the two armies; and the king of England had his camp strongly surrounded with palisades and ditches, that he might not be surprised by the enemy, leaving sufficient openings, fortified with barriers, which he had carefully guarded by day and by night. In like manner did the duke of Burgundy and the English that were encamped with him.

In this state did the siege continue for eighteen weeks, during which some few sallies, but in no very considerable force, were made by the besieged. However, a valiant English captain called sir Philip Lis, a notable gentleman from Burgundy, sir Everard de Vienne, and several more, lost their lives. As the besiegers continued their attacks incessantly, great damage was done to the walls, which those in the town repaired as well as they could with casks filled with earth, and other sufficient materials. The king of England had a mine carried on with such success that it was very nearly under the walls, when the besieged, having suspicions of what was intended, formed a countermine, so that great part of the enemy's works fell in, and a warm engagement with lances took place. The English erected a strong barrier on their side of the mine, at which the king and the duke of Burgundy engaged two of the Dauphinois with push of pike, which was afterward continued by several knights and esquires of each party. Then the following persons of the duke's household were created knights, Jean de Hornes, the lord de Baussigines, Robert de Mannes, and some others.

While this siege lasted, the king of England paid frequent visits to his queen at Corbeil, with whom was the duchess of Clarence and other noble ladies from England. When the town had been thus blockaded on all sides, king Charles was brought thither to afford the besieged an opportunity of surrendering it to the king of France, their natural lord; but to the summons made them they replied, that they would cheerfully throw open their gates to him alone, but that they would never pay obedience to the king of England, the ancient deadly enemy of France. Nevertheless, king Charles remained some time in the camp under the care and management of his son-in-law the king of England,-not indeed with his former state and pomp, for in comparison of past times it was a poor sight now to see him. He was accompanied by the queen of France, grandly attended by ladies and damsels; and they resided about a month in a house which king Henry had erected for them near to his tents, and at a distance from the town, that the cannon might not annoy them. Every day, at sunrise and nightfall, eight or ten clarions, and divers other instruments, played most melodiously for an hour before the king of France's tent. In truth, the king of England was more magnificently attended during this siege than at any other during his reign, and was personally very active to accomplish his enterprise. While these things were passing, Pierre de Luxembourg, count de Conversan and de Brienne, returning from this siege to his county of Brienne, and escorted by about sixty men-at-arms, was met by a party of Dauphinois from Meaux, in Brie, namely Pierron de Lupel, and others; and they, being superior in numbers, carried him and his men prisoners to Meaux, where he remained until the king of England besieged that town, as you shall hear. At this period, the queen of Sicily, widow to king Louis of happy memory, granted permission, but not without heavy sighs, to her eldest son Louis to go to Rome to be crowned king of Sicily by the hands of the pope. She gave him into the charge of the Florentines and Genoese, who had entered the port of Marseilles with fifteen galleys, trusting not entirely to their loyalty, but demanding as hostages for her son eight of the most noble barons of Naples, who had come to fetch him by orders from the cities, chief towns, and principal noblemen of the realm. This they had done from hatred to their queen, wife to sir James de Bourbon, count de la Marche. She had detained her husband in prison, in consequence of her quarrels with him and his ministers. The young king Louis having embarked at Marseilles, which was a dependence of his mother's, sailed to Rome, and there solemnly received his kingdom from the hands of the pope, although he was not then crowned. He was thenceforward styled king Louis, as his late father had been.

* Iouis, called also Barbatus, second son of the emperor son, Rupert, who died childless. Duke Louis afterwards Rupert, elector-palatine of the Rhine, married Blanche, married again, and had a son, who succeeded to the daughter of Henry IV., by whom he had issue only one electorate.


DURING the siege of Melun, the castles hereafter mentioned, namely, the bastile of St. Anthony, the Louvre, the palace of Neele, and the castle of Vincennes, were, by orders from the king of France, with the consent of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, put into the hands of king Henry, who sent his brother the duke of Clarence to take the command of them, and constituted him governor of Paris. He dismissed all the French garrisons who had hitherto guarded them, and placed therein none but English. The government of Paris was taken from the count de St. Pol, who was, soon after, sent with master Pierre de Marigny and others as commissioners from the king of France to Picardy, to receive the oaths from the three estates and principal towns in that country, in order that the peace lately concluded between the two kings might be strictly observed, and that they might in future faithfully obey the king of France, and the king of England as regent of the realm. These commissioners received the following instructions from the king of France; and they were to bring back the oaths signed by the three estates and magistrates of the chief towns.

“Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to our very dear and well-beloved cousins the count de St. Pol, the bishop of Terouenne, and John de Luxembourg, and to our very dear and well-beloved the bishop of Arras, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de la Viefville, the governors of Arras and of Lille, master Pierre de Marigny, our advocate in parliament, and master George d'Ostende, our secretary, health and greeting. We having lately, after due deliberation, and by the advice of our consort the queen, and of our very dear and wellbeloved son Philip duke of Burgundy, the prelates, the nobles and commonalties of our said kingdom, concluded a peace, to the great advantage of ourself and of our realm, with our very dear son Henry king of England, heir and regent of France, for ourself and for the kingdoms of France and of England; which peace has been solemnly sworn to by us, our consort the queen, our son of Burgundy, and by the nobles, barons, prelates, churchmen, and commonalties of the realm. We therefore order that all persons within our kingdom who have not as yet taken the oaths for the due observance of this peace do swear to the same without delay; and, confiding in your great loyalty, prudence, and diligence, we command, by these presents, that you, and each of you, do instantly visit all the cities, large towns, castles, and other notable places within the bailiwicks of Amiens, Tournay, Lille, y, Arras, and in the county of Ponthieu, and within their different dependencies and jurisdictions; and that you do summon before you all whom you shall think proper, of prelates and other dignitaries of the church, nobles, and common people, and that you do publicly cause to be read to them the whole of the articles of the said peace; which done, you will strictly enjoin them in our name to swear, in your presence, on the holy evangelists, to the due observance of the peace, the following oaths, under pain of being reputed rebels, and disobedient to us:— “First, you shall swear obedience and loyalty to the high and mighty prince Henry king of England, as governor and regent of France, and that you will faithfully obey all his orders in whatever shall tend to the preservation of the public welfare and of the realm, subject at the present to the very high and potent prince Charles king of France our sovereign lord.— Secondly, that after the decease of our said sovereign lord king Charles, you will, conformably to the articles of the peace, become liege men and loyal subjects to the very high and mighty prince Henry king of England, and to his heirs; that you will honour and acknowledge him as king of France without opposition, as your true king, and obey him as such, promising henceforward to obey none other as king of France, excepting king Charles at present on the throne.—Thirdly, you will not afford assistance or advice to any conspiracies, that may tend to the death of the said king Henry, to the loss of his limbs, or to the diminution of his estate or dignity; but should you know of any such conspiracies, you will prevent them from taking effect as much as shall in you lie, and you shall inform the said king of England thereof by messages or letters. And you will swear generally to observe punctually all the different articles of this treaty of peace between our said lord king Charles and Henry king of England, without fraud, deception, or mental reservation whatever, and that you will resist and oppose any one who may any way attempt to infringe them. “These oaths we will and command all our vassals of every rank and condition to take, and swear to the maintaining the peace without infringing it in the smallest degree. You and your clerks will punctually transmit to us certificates of the above oaths having been solemnly taken in your presence. And we ordain that any number of you from nine to three persons be a sufficient court to receive such oaths, for which these presents shall be your authority. We order and command all our bailiffs, and others our officers of justice, to obey your directions, and to afford you every aid and advice that you may require. And because it may be necessary to make public these our commands in different parts, we will that as much faith be placed in the copies under our royal seal as in the original. “Given at our siege of Melun the 23d day of July, in the year of Grace 1420, and of our reign the 40th.” Countersigned, “MARC.” The count de St. Pol and the other commissioners in consequence of these orders left Paris, and were some days in journeying to Amiens, that they might avoid the ambushes of the Dauphinois. They were kindly received in Amiens, and, having shown their powers, the inhabitants took the oaths. They thence went to Abbeville, St. Ricquier, Montrieul, Boulogne, St. Omer, and other places, where they duly obeyed and punctually executed the orders they had received.

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