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ance.

Phidian perfection are still nurtured in back to the surface of the body with a the vales of Caucasus.

misty glow, like that which steeps the The necessary disguise of dress hides clouds of a summer afternoon. from us much of the beauty and dignity We have but one more process to unof Humanity. I have seen inen who dergo, and the attendant already stands appeared heroic in the freedom of naked- at the head of our couch. This is the ness, shrink almost into absolute vulgar- course of passive gymnastics, which exity, when clothed. The soul not only cites so much alarm and resistance in the sits at the windows of the eyes, and ignorant Franks. It is only resistance hangs upon the gateway of the lips'; she that is dangerous, completely neutralizspeaks as well in the intricate, yet har- ing the enjoyment of the process. Give monious lines of the body, and the ever- yourself with a blind submission into the varying play of the limbs. Look at the arms of the brown Fate, and he will lead torso of Ilioneus, the son of Niobe, and you to new chambers of delight. He see what an agony of terror and suppli- lifts us to a sitting posture, places himcation cries out from that headless and self behind us, and folds his arms around limbless trunk! Decapitate Laocoon, our body, alternately tightening and reand his knotted muscles will still express laxing his clasp, as if to test the elastithe same dreadful suffering and resist- city of the ribs. Then seizing one arm,

None knew this better than the he draws it across the opposite shoulder, ancient sculptors; and hence it was that until the joint cracks like a percussionwe find many of their statues of distin

cap.

The shoulder-blades, the elbows, guished men wholly or partly undraped. the wrists, and the finger-joints are all Such a view of art would be considered made to fire off their muffled volleys; transcendental now-a-days, when our and then, placing one knee between our dress, our costumes, and our modes of shoulders, and clasping both hands upon speech either ignore the existence of our our forehead, he draws our head back bodies, or treat them with little of that until we feel a great snap of the vertereverence which is their due.

bral column. Now he descends to the But, while we have been thinking hip-joints, knees, ankles, and feet, forcing these thoughts, the attendant has been each and all to discharge a salvo de joie. waiting to give us a final plunge into the The slight langour left from the bath is seething tank. Again, we slide down to gone, and airy, delicate exhilaration, bethe eyes in the fluid heat, which wraps fitting the winged Mercury, takes its us closely about until we tingle with place. exquisite hot shiverings. Now comes The boy kneeling, presents us with a the graceful boy, with clean, cool, laven- finjan of foamy coffee, followed by a dered napkins, which he folds around glass of sherbet cooled with the snows our waist and wraps softly about the of Lebanon. He presently returns with head. The pattens are put upon our a narghileh, which we smoke by the feet, and the brown arm steadies us effortless inhalation of the lungs. Thus gently through the sweating-room and we lie in perfect repose, soothed by the ante-chamber into the outer hall, where fragrant weed, and idly watching the we mount to our couch. We sink gently silent Orientals, who are undressing for upon the cool linen, and the boy covers the bath or reposing like ourselves. us with a perfumed sheet. Then, kneel- Through the arched entrance, we see a ing beside the couch, he presses the folds picture of the Bazaars: a shadowy paintof the sheet around us, that it may ab- ing of merchants seated amid their silks sorb the lingering moisture and the and spices, dotted here and there with limpid perspiration shed by the departing golden drops and splashes of sunshine, heat. As fast as the linen becomes damp, which have trickled through the roof. he replaces it with fresh, pressing the The scene paints itself upon our eyes, folds about us as tenderly as a mother yet wakes no slightest stir of thought. arranges the drapery of her sleeping The brain is a becalmed sea, without a babe; for we, though of the stature of ripple on its shores. Mind and body a man, are now infantile in our helpless are drowned in delicious rest; and we happiness. Then he takes our passive no longer remember what we are. We hand and warms its palm by the soft only know that there is an Existence friction of his own; after which, moving somewhere in the air, and that wherever to the end of the couch, he takes our it is, and whatever it may be, it is feet upon his lap, and repeats the friction upon their soles, until the blood comes More and more dim grows the picture.

happy.

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In a painted boat on a distant sea

Three fowlers sailed merrily on,
And each took aim as he came near the game,
And the gannets fell one by one,

And fluttered and died while the tempest sighed !

Then a cloud came over the distant sea,

A darkness caine over the sun;
And a storin-wind smote on the painted boat,
And the fowlers sank one by one,

Down, down with their craft, while the tempest laughed i

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE RUSSIAN WAR.

PRESENT AND FUTURE.

INE

a previous article* we have spoken vinces of that empire, to fall under Moof Russia, PAST AND PRESENT. We hammedan dominion. This occasioned have traced the rise and growth of that deepest grief throughout the Christian vast empire, and spoken of the relations world. The tomb of the Saviour was which it has sustained to other nations, in the hands of the Infidels! Many particularly to the Turks on the one were the insults and sufferings which hand (including their co-religionists and Christian pilgrims suffered at those hands kinsmen-if we may so call them the for three centuries. At length the CruMongolians and Crim-Tartars), and the sades commenced, and from the end of Poles on the other. We have shown the the eleventh to the end of the thirorigin of the deadly hatred that has for teenth centuries, those astonishing moveages subsisted between the Russians and ments by which Western Europe precipithese races, which, like themselves, are tated masses of men, who professed to Asiatic in their character and manners, be followers of Christ, on Western Asia and the last-named, a branch also of the --for the recovery of the Holy Sepulgreat Sclavonic family of nations. We chre. It was emphatically a Roman proceed now to speak of Russia, PRE- Catholic movement the Greek Church SENT AND FUTURE.

taking but little heartfelt interest in it. And here, at the outset, we will enter The intense hatred between the Greek without further remark, upon the con- or Eastern Church, and the Latin or sideration of the present war between Western Church, from the year A. D. Russia and Turkey, which has already 860, accounts for this fact. The Crusadinvolved France and England, and may ers held Jerusalem from 1099 till 1187, involve, before it is ended, all the great when Saladin, the Caliph of Egypt, took powers of Europe. The history of its it. origin and progress is in the highest de- In the succeeding century, the Orugree interesting. To understand the sades ceased; but the cause which had real, though latent, causes which have led to their being undertaken, did not led to this war, we must look back into cease to be felt. In the century followthe middle ages for a moment.

ing, Palestine, as well as almost the enThose of our readers who are familiar tire of the Greek Empire, fell beneath with history need not be told that the the victorious arms of the Turks. In successors of Mohammed, at an early one century more, Constantinople fell, day, commenced the struggle between and the Greek Empire was no more! the Crescent and the Cross, which has When that event occurred, the Chrislasted, with various fortunes, for nearly tians in the East were left for two or twelve centuries. From the nature of three centuries without the protection of the case, the Eastern or Greek Empire any Christian prince or government. At was the first portion of Christendom length France, who had taken the lead that felt the scymitar of the Impostor in the Crusades, began to advocate their of Arabia.t That empire embraced, in cause by making treaties with the Subthe seventh century, nearly all the lime Porte, in which there were stipulacountries of Western Asia which had tions in favor of Christians residing in, belonged to the Roman Empire in its or visiting, the Holy Land. But these palmiest day. It included, also, a portion treaties contemplated mainly, or rather of Northern Africa, the southern part only, the rights, privileges, and protecof Italy, and the islands in the Levant. tion of Ohristians of the Latin or WestAs might be expected, Palestine, or the ern Church. France cared little for the “Holy Land," the birth-place of Chris- millions of the "schismatical” Greek tianity, was one of the first of the pro- Church. She has for eleven centuries

* Putnam's Monthly for October, pages 422-433.

+ In the eighth century, Moslem zeal and fury carried the Standard of the Prophet across the entire northern end of Africa, and planted it in Spain, and for a time even in France. That standard was planted for a while in Southern Italy and the Mediterranean Isles in the century following. In the thirteenth century, the Mongols and Tartars carried the sword of Mohammed into all southern and eastern Russia, and finally, Mohammedanism took up its abode, in the fifteenth century, in what is now called Turkey.

VOL. IV.-35

considered herself as at the head of the Turkish dominions. But in process of Roman Catholic nations, and the pro- time, the scale turned the other way. tector, as well as champion, of the Ro- The progress of civilization and the arts, man Catholic or Latin Church. As to

-a progress for which Russia is indebtthe members of the Greek Church, and ed to Christianity-gradually raised up the five other Oriental Churches-the that great country from the feeble conArmenian, Nestorian, Syrian, Coptic, dition in which it had so long been, and Abyssinian—inasmuch as they ac- during which, it was a prey to the Monknowledged not the Bishop of Rome, gols, the Tartars, the Pules, Livonians, but looked up to their own Patriarchs, the Lithuanians, and even the Swedes. they were left by France, the Emperor In the year 1672, the Russians, for the of Germany, and the other Roman Cath- first time, began to measure swords with olic governments, to the tender mercies the Turks, of whom they had lived in of the Sultan of Turkey and his confe- dread for two centuries. In a little more derates. Centuries of oppression, cruel than a century after that, the Tartars injustice, and persecution in one form were entirely conquered, and the Turks and another, passed away.

were driven to the southwest-almost But at length God raised up an Avenger to the frontier of the empire. In 1812, in the Czars of Russia. That great coun- Russia extended her boundary to the try, as we have stated in our former arti- Pruth, and even to the Danube, from cle, received its Christianity and its civil- the mouth of the Pruth to the Black ization from Byzantium, or Constantino- Sea. Even before the treaty of that ple, as it has been called since the fourth year, the Russian czars had begun to century. It was to missionaries from demand protection for their “brethren" the Greek Church, that she was indebted of the Greek Church in the Turkish dofor the Scriptures, and the institutions minions. Nor has the present emperor of the Gospel. The most intimate rela- been indifferent to this subject; on the tions sprung up between the Churches contrary, he has gone farther than any of Russia and those of the Greek or of his predecessors. It is not easy for Eastern Empire. The Greek Patriarch us to conceive the intense interest with of Constantinople was the acknowledged which all the Christians in the Turkish head of the Russo-Greek Church. This Empire, excepting the Roman Catholics, state of things lasted more than a thou- have watched the growing power of sand years. Even the conquest of the Russia for the last century or two. From entire southern part of Russia by the that quarter they began to hope for deTartars and Poles (the former Moham- liverance. There has been abundant medans, the latter Roman Catholics, proof, since the commencement of the and both bitter enemies of the Greek present war, of the strong sympathy Church), did not destroy the sympathy which subsists between the Christians of the Russian Church for that of the of the Greek Church in Turkey and Greek Empire--although it rendered the kingdom of Greece, and the people much intercourse between them impossi- of Russia. Not only has Russia deble. And when Constantinople fell un- manded protection for the Greek Church der the dominion of the Turks, four cen- in Turkey, which is the chief church in turies ago, and with it the whole of the that country, and embraces twelve milEastern Empire, the official connection lions of souls (this is the estimate of the between the churches of the two coun- Emperor Nicholas); she has also intertries ceased, but not their sympathy. fered for the protection of the residents About that time, one of the Patriarchs and pilgrims of the Greek faith in the of Constantinople (of the Greek Church) Holy Land. On this subject we must fled to Moscow. Thus the Patriarchate say a few words, inasmuch as it is in of that city commenced,* and with it some degree connected with the origin the independent existence of the Russo- of the present war. Greek Church. At this period, and for There are in Palestine certain buildseveral centuries afterwards, the Czars ings and places which are called the of Russia were too weak to do anything “Holy Places," and sometimes, but not whatever in behalf of the oppressed very accurately, especially by the French people of the Greek Church in the diplomatists who have figured in the present contest, the “Sacred Shrines." ing disorder and violence often occur, We believe there are eight or ten of even within their sacred walls. То such places. One of them (the site of such lengths do matters often go, that the temple and the localities connected the soldiers of Islam have to be called in with it), the Mohammedan governments to make the “Christian dogs," as they which have ruled that country for almost contemptuously call them, cease from twelve centuries have never allowed their strife. The cause of the quarrel Christians to visit. Sometimes even the has often been: Who shall have the Christian pilgrims have not been allowed precedence, the Latin or the Greek to go down to the river of Jordan, and Christians, on these occasions? For a bathe in its sacred water. It has often long time the Latins bore off the palm. been dangerous for them to visit the They were allowed to have the keys of “ Mount of Transfiguration,”_in the the churches; and, of course, they did northern part of the country. But they very much as they pleased. Often the have had access, more or less unrestricted, Greeks could scarcely gain admittance for a long time, to the two places which at all, without many and most violent. are, probably, the most sacred in the efforts. thoughts and feelings of those who have For three hundred years* France has desired to make pilgrimages to the land stood up for the Latin, or Roman Catholic, where the Saviour lived, which was Christians, and maintained by treaty trodden by his blessed feet, and bedewed their claims,—not only to protection, by his tears and his blood. One of but also to precedence. For a long time these is the “ Church of the Nativity,". she had the field to herself. There was no at Bethlehem. According to tradition, nation which professed the Greek faith it stands on the very spot where the that was strong enough to say a word in stable stood in which the Saviour was behalf of the claims of the Greek Church. born. A silver star, suspended by a

* The Patriarchate of Moscow continued till the year 1700, when it ceased. Peter the Great substituted the “ Holy Synod” for it. The Synod has cognizance of doctrines and discipline; the Emperor is at the head of the Church in relation to secular affairs, but has less power over it than the Queen of England has over the Established Church of that land.

The Protestant nations took little or no cord from the ceiling, hangs over the interest in the matter, as may well be spot where the

manger” stood, in supposed. They regarded with pity, if which the " Infant Christ” was laid by not contempt, the miserable superstition his blessed mother. The other is the of both the corrupted and degenerated "Church of the Holy Sepulchre," at churches which were prominent in the Jerusalem, which is built over the sup- dispute. posed Tomb of of our Lord. The tomb But Russia at length appeared on the is a small building in the centre of the scene, and began to make her influence church.

felt in behalf of the Greeks, as France Every year these churches are visited had made hers felt in behalf of the by all the pilgrims who flock to the Latins. She, too, made the question a Holy Land, and by other Christians who subject of diplomacy at the court of the may be in the country. It is difficult to. Sultan. Nor did she toil in vain. She say whether the Roman Catholics, or the gained, a few years ago, some advantages Greek, and other oriental Christians which were deemed important for the take the deeper interest in, and attach followers of the Greek faith. This prothe greater importance to, these “Sacred voked the jealousy of France, and Louis Shrines." It would seem as if they Philippe (in 1847) directed his embassawere, for the most part, about equally dor to negotiate with the Sublime Porte. influenced by an ignorant and debasing Certainly the annals of diplomacy do not superstition, which had its origin in the furnish the names of many men who were wants and the demands of an unenlight- less fit for such a delicate and difficult ened heart, and a smitten and oppressed mission, than M. de Lavalette, who was conscience. The epochs of greatest con- the French embassador at Constantinocourse are Easter and Christmas. It is ple at that time. This gentleman-long the testimony of every traveller who known in the salons of Paris as an acvisits Palestine at these seasons, that the complished and fashionable man, and at churches in question are crowded at length as the husband of the widow of those times by pilgrims, most of whom an eminent American bankert-who had belong to the Latin and Greek commu- had no diplomatic experience excepting nities. As the hatred of these churches what he liad acquired as the French consul is reciprocal and intense, scenes of shock- general in Egypt, betrayed an impetuosity

* Her first treaty in favor of the “ Franks," or Latin Christians, was made in 1535. + The late Mr. Wells of Boston, of the firm of Wells, Green & Co. at Paris.

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