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and reverence by the nobles, clergy, and common people, as if he had been an apostle of our Lord Jesus CHRIST, sent from heaven to earth. He was followed by multitudes of people, and his mule was led by knights, or those of high rank, on foot to the house wherein he was to lodge, which was commonly that of the richest burgher in the town; and his disciples

Au HENNIN.—FEMALE HEAD-DRsssfs of the FIFTEENTH CENTURY.-Selected from various contemporary MSS,

of whom he had many, were distributed among the best houses; for it was esteemed a great favour when one of them lodged in the house of any individual.

When Friar Thomas arrived at his lodgings, he retired to a private chamber, and would not be visited by any but those of the family, except for a few moments. At the conclusion of his sermons, he earnestly admonished the audience, on the damnation of their souls and on pain of excommunication, to bring to him whatever backgammon-boards, chess-boards, ninepins, or other instruments for games of amusement, they might possess. In like manner did he order the women to bring their hennins,—and having caused a great fire to be lighted in front of his scaffold, he threw all those things into it.

Friar Thomas remained in these parts for the space of six months, and visited many great cities, such as Cambray, Tournay, Arras, Amiens, and Therouenne, wherein he made many celebrated sermons, to the delight of the lower ranks, who sometimes assembled to hear him to the number of from sixteen to twenty thousand persons. At his sermons he divided the women from the men by a cord; for he said he had observed some sly doings between them while he was preaching. He would not receive any money himself, nor permit any of the preachers who attended him to do so, but was satisfied if presents were made to him of rich church ornaments, if his disciples were clothed, and his own expenses paid. The people were very happy in thus gratifying him.

Many persons of note, in the conviction that to serve him would be a pious act, believing him a prudent and holy man, followed him everywhere, deserting their parents, wives, children and homes. In this number was the lord d'Antoing, and some others of the nobility. When he had remained any time, without the clergy attempting to confute his reasonings, he departed with the love of the people, but with the indignation of some churchmen. He embarked at the port of St. Valery, to return to Brittany, where he had been born.



At this period the duke of Burgundy set out, grandly accompanied by the nobles of his country, for Brussels, to be present at a tournament that was to be given there during the carnival. The son of the demoisel de Gazebeque was the founder of the prize. The duke of Burgundy was magnificently feasted by his cousin duke Philip of Brabant, the great barons of the country, and by the city of Brussels. On the day of the tournament, the two dukes were matched against each other, as well as their nobles, by the advice of prudent counsellors and heralds at arms, to avoid any accidents that might happen. There were this day from seven to eight score helmets in the market-place at Brussels who made a fine show; for they were all richly dressed, and adorned with their emblazoned surcoats. When the officers-at-arms had made the usual proclamations, the tournament commenced, and many hardy strokes were given; but the prize was adjudged to a gentleman of Brabant, called Jean Linquart. On the morrow, and the ensuing day, were great joustings: on the first, the duke of Brabant gained the prize, and on the second, the lord de Mamines won it. With regard to the dancings and banquets, there were abundance of both, and crowds of ladies and damsels richly dressed according to the fashions of the country. There were likewise very many masquerades of the ladies and gentlemen. During the feast, the sword was given to the lord de Croy, knight to the duke of Burgundy, who, having considered a while, had another tournament proclaimed to be holden on an appointed day in the town of Mons, in Hainault; but which, from certain causes that interfered at that time, did not take place. The duke of Burgundy, having tarried in the city of Brussels from four to five days, set out on his return home to Flanders, notwithstanding the weather was then very severe, with frost and snow. The other lords returned to the places whence they came.


The count de Namur, who was very old, died in the course of this year. He had, some time before his death, sold to the duke of Burgundy his county of Namur, with its dependencies; and on his decease the duke advanced thither, when peaceable possession was given to him of the whole; and he appointed commissioners and captains to govern and defend it at his pleasure. The Liegeois, who bordered on Namur, were not well pleased at this accession of power to the duke of Burgundy, whom they feared before, and very much disliked, because duke John, his father, and duke William, his uncle, had formerly conquered them, as has been related in the earlier part of this work. The Liegeois held, at this time, the strong town of Mont-Orgueil, situated near to Bouvines”, which was said to belong to Namur, and, as such, the duke of Burgundy wished to have it; but the Liegeois refused to yield it up, and hence began a quarrel on each side. The duke, finding that he could not gain it amicably, returned to Flanders, and secretly raised a body of men-at-arms, whom he despatched, under the command of sir John Blondel, and Gerard, bastard of Brimeu, to the country of Liege, with orders to win the tower of Mont-Orgueil by force. When they had approached the walls, and were preparing their scaling-ladders, they were seen by the garrison, who made a sally, and defeated them. They then returned back, and the Liegeois kept up a stricter watch than before; and their hatred to the duke of Burgundy was increased.

The English continued their siege of Orleans, and king Charles was in very great distress; for the major part of his princes and nobles, perceiving that his affairs were miserably bad, and everything going wrong, had quite abandoned him. Nevertheless, he had great hope and confidence in God; and laboured earnestly to procure a peace with the duke of Burgundy, and had sent him many embassies to solicit it; but hitherto no terms could be agreed on between them.

* Bouvines, in the county of Namur, situated on the Meuse.


THE regent duke of Bedford, while at Paris, had collected about five hundred carts and cars from the borders of Normandy and from the Isle de France, which different merchants were ordered to load with provision, stores and other things, and to have conveyed to the

English army before Orleans. When all was ready, the command of this convoy was given

to sir John Fascot * grand-master of the duke's household, and with him were, the provost of Paris, named Simon Morbier, the bastard de Thiam knight, bailiff of Senlis, the provost of Melun, and several other officers from the Isle de France and that neighbourhood, accompanied by sixteen hundred combatants and a thousand common men. This armament left Paris on Ash-Wednesday, under the command of sir John Fastolfe, who conducted the convoy and his forces in good order by short marches, until he came near the village of Rouvroy in Beauce, situated between Genville and Orleans. Many French captains, having long before heard of his coming, were there assembled to wait his arrival, namely, Charles duke of Bourbon, the two marshals of France, the constable of Scotland and his son, the lords de la Tourt, de Chauvigny, de Graville, sir William d'Albreth, the viscount de Thouars, the bastard d'Orleans, sir James de Chabannesi, the lord de la Fayette, Poton de Saintrailles, Estienne de Vignolles, surnamed La Hire, sir Theolde de Valperghe, and others of the nobility, having with them from three to four thousand men. The English had been informed of this force being assembled from different garrisons which they had in those parts, and lost no time in forming a square with their carts and carriages, leaving but two openings, in which square they enclosed themselves, posting their archers as guards to these entrances, and the men at arms hard by to support them. On the strongest side of this enclosure were the merchants, pages, carters, and those incapable of defending themselves, with all their horses. The English thus situated, waited two hours for the coming of the enemy, who at length arrived with much noise, and drew up out of bowshot in front of the enclosure. It seemed to them, that considering their superior numbers, the state of the convoy, and that there were not more than six hundred real Englishmen, the rest being composed of all nations, they could not escape falling into their hands, and must be speedily conquered. Others, however, had their fears of the contrary happening, for the French captains did not well agree together as to their mode of fighting, for the Scots would combat on foot, and the others on horseback. The lord Charles de Bourbon was there knighted by the lord de la Fayette, with some others. In the mean time, the constable of Scotland, his son and all their men, dismounted and advanced to attack their adversaries, by whom they were received with great courage. The English archers, under shelter of the carriages, shot so well and stiffly that all on horseback within their reach were glad to retreat with their men-at-arms. The constable of Scotland and his men attacked one of the entrances of the enclosure, but they were soon slain on the spot. Among the killed were, sir John Stuart, his son, sir William d'Albreth lord d'Orval, the lord de Châteaubrun, the lord de Mont Pipels, sir John Larigot, the lord de Verduisant, the lord de Divray, the lord de la Greve|, sir Anthony de Puilly and others, to the amount of six score gentlemen and five hundred common men, the greater part of whom were Scotsmen. The other French captains retreated with their men to the places whence they had come. The English, on their departure, refreshed themselves, and then marched away in haste for their town of Rouvroy, where they halted for the night. On the morrow they departed in handsome array, with their convoy and artillery, armed with every accoutrement becoming warriors, and in a few days arrived before Orleans, very much rejoiced at their good fortune in the late attack from the French, and at having so successfully brought provision to their countrymen. This battle was ever afterward called the Battle of Herrings, because great part of the convoy consisted of herrings and other articles of food suitable to Lent. King Charles, on hearing the event, was sick at heart, seeing that the state of his affairs was becoming worse and worse. This battle of Rouvroy was fought on the night of the first Sunday in Lent, about three hours after midnight. The English lost only one man of note, called Bresanteau, nephew to sir Simon Morbier, provost of Paris. On the part of the English were that day made knights, Galloy d'Aunoy, lord d'Orville, the great Raoulin, and Louis de Luxu, a Savoyard. The army of the English might have consisted of about seventeen hundred combatants of tried courage, without including common men; and the French, as I have said, were from three to four thousand at least. The lord de Chateaubrun and some others were knighted at the same time with Charles de Bourbon. Only one prisoner was made that day, and he was a Scotsman.

* Q. If not sir John Fastolfe. seneschal of Toulouse, and grand-maitre of France. He

+ Bertrand III. lord of la Tour, who, by his marriage with Mary, daughter of Geoffry de Boulogne, lord of Montgascon, and heiress of Jane duchess of Berry and countess of Boulogne and Auvergne, brought these two earldoms into his family. His son Bertrand IV. assumed the title of count of Auvergne and Boulogne.

f James de Chabannes, lord de la Palice, Chalus, &c.

was killed at Castillon in 1453. His brother was Anthony
de Chabannes, afterwards count of Dammartin. His
father was killed at Azincourt.
§ Peter de Beauvan, lord of Mont Pipel and Roche-
sur-Yon, seneschal of Anjou and Provence.
| Thibaut de Chabot, fourth lord of la Greve, Mon-
contour, &c. -


chapter Lv11.—A MAIDEN NAMED JoAN waits on KING CHARLEs AT CHINoN,

In the course of this year, a young girl called Joan, about twenty years old, and dressed like a man, came to Charles king of France at Chinon. She was born in the town of Droimy, on the borders of Burgundy and Lorraine, not far from Waucouleurs, and had been for some time hostler and chambermaid to an inn, and had shown much courage in riding horses to water, and in other feats unusual for young girls to do. She was instructed how to act, and sent to the king by sir Robert de Baudricourt", knight, governor of Waucouleurs, who supplied her with horses and from four to six men as an escort. She called herself a maiden inspired by the divine grace, and said that she was sent to restore king Charles to his kingdom, whence he had been unjustly driven, and was now reduced to so deplorable a state. She remained about two months in the king's household, frequently admonishing him to give her men and support, and that she would repulse his enemies, and exalt his name. The king and council in the mean time knew not how to act; for they put no great faith in what she said, considering her as one out of her senses; for to such noble persons the expressions she used are dangerous to be believed, as well for fear of the anger of the Lord, as for the blasphemous discourses which they may occasion in the world. After some time, however, she was promised men-at-arms and support: a standard was also given her, on which she caused to be painted a representation of our Creator. All her conversation was of God, on which account great numbers of those who heard her had great faith in what she said, and believed her inspired, as she declared herself to be. She was many times examined by learned clerks, and other prudent persons of rank, to find out her real intentions; but she kept to her purpose, and always replied, that if the king would believe her, she would restore to him his kingdom. In the mean time, she did several acts which shall be hereafter related, that gained her great renown. When she came first to the king, the duke d'Alençon, the king's marshal, and other captains were with him, for he had held a grand council relative to the siege of Orleans: from Chinon the king went to Poitiers, accompanied by the Maid. Shortly after, the marshal was ordered to convey provisions and stores, under a strong escort, to the army within Orleans. Joan requested to accompany him, and that armour should be given her, which was done. She then displayed her standard and went to Blois where the escort was to assemble, and thence to Orleans, always dressed in complete armour. On this expedition many warriors served under her; and when she arrived at Orleans great

* Robert lord of Baudricourt and Blaise, bailiff of Chaumont, and captain of Waucouleurs. His son John became a mareschal of France.

feasts were made for her, and the garrison and townsmen were delighted at her coming among them.

MAID of Orlmans INTRoduced to CHARLas VII. At Chinon.—From an Illumination in the MS. Monstrelet in the British Museum.

CHAPTER LVIII.-AMBAssADoRS ARE SENT BY KING CHARLEs, AND THE BURGHERs of oRLEANs, To PARIs, to NEGOTIATE A TREATY witH THE REGENT, THAT THE Town of ORLEANS MAY REMAIN IN PEACE. [A. D. 1429.] At the beginning of this year, the duke of Burgundy arrived at Paris with about six hundred horse, and was most joyfully received by the duke of Bedford and the duchess his sister. Soon after came thither Poton de Saintrailles, Pierre d'Orgin, and other noble ambassadors from king Charles, with envoys from the town of Orleans, to negotiate with the duke-regent and king Henry's council for that town to remain in peace, and that it should be placed in the hands of the duke of Burgundy, for him to govern it at his pleasure, and to maintain its neutrality. It was also pleaded, that the duke of Orleans and his brother the count d'Angoulême, who had for a long time past been the right owners of the town, were now prisoners in England, and had been no way concerned in this war. The duke of Bedford assembled his council many times on this matter, but they could not agree respecting it. Several urged the great expenses king Henry had been put to for this siege, and the great losses he had sustained of his principal captains,—adding, that the town could not hold out much longer, for it was hard pressed for provision, and that it was a place more advantageous for them to possess than any other, supporting what they said by several weighty reasons. Others were not pleased that it should be put into the hands of the duke of Burgundy, saying that it was unreasonable, when king Henry and his vassals had supported all the risks and danger, that the duke of Burgundy should reap the

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