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and musk oxen. The ravines were covered the 16th of February, when the thermomwith luxuriant moss, and other vegetation. eter indicated 55° below zero. In March

On the 4th of September the ships the snow began to melt in the sun, yet, as reached the 110th degree of W. longitude, late as the last of May, the sea still prewhich entitled them to the reward of sented one unbroken field of ice, from six £5,000, offered by Parliament to the first to seven feet in thickness. Toward the ship's crew that attained this longitude end of June the ice began to move in the within the Arctic circle. They now offing. On the 5th of July the thermomereached the largest island they had seen, ter stood at 55°, and, on the 17th, at 60°. to which the name of Melville was given, On the 1st of August the ships left their and worked their way along its shores. winter harbor, and stood westward, but The navigable channel had been daily after three or four days spent in working growing narrower on account of the ice, the ships through the floating ice, their which was firm and compact to the farther progress was arrested by the comsouth, as far as could be seen. Their pact ice, more firm than any they had progress was now slow, and on the 20th of seen. It did not appear to have been broSeptember they found themselves com- ken up for years, and on ascending the pletely beset by floes of ice. From the lofty hills which bordered the coast, from mast-head one unbroken field of ice pre- which a distant view was presented, no sented itself, which had been there during boundary was seen to the icy barrier. A the summer. It was now evident that no brisk gale from the eastward produced no further advance could be made that season. effect upon it, which induced Captain The ships accordingly returned a short dis- Parry to believe that a large body of land tance, and entered an excellent harbor, existed westward, which held it in this which they had passed. Here they sawed fixed state. To the south a bold coast a channel through the ice for upwards of was seen which was named Banks' Sound. two miles, and took up their winter quar- The ships remained here till the 15th ters.

August, when seeing no prospect of adThe ships were now dismantled, and vancing farther, it was determined to housed over. The most improved heating escape while the weather was favorable. apparatus was put up ; every attention was They accordingly put them about on the paid to the food, clothing, exercise, and 26th. Barrow's Strait being clear of ice, mental occupation of the crew. A school they reached Lancaster Sound, and entered was opened. A newspaper called the Baffin's Bay in five days. After some North Georgia Gazette was published. brief delays the ships proceeded to England, Theatrical performances were got up by landing their officers at Peterhead on the the officers, and every means adopted that 30th of October. In this long voyage of would conduce to the health and comfort 18 months, but one man died out of 94 of the crew. In this manner the winter persons; the remainder were brought home passed away. The sun disappeared en- in excellent health. tirely on the 4th of November, and was Captain Parry was warmly received on not again visible above the horizon until his arrival, for the results of the expethe 3d February. The animals took their dition had surpassed the expectations departure early in the winter, and did not of the most sanguine. “To have sailed return until May.

upwards of thirty degrees of longitude beTo this desolate spot the expedition was yond the point reached by any former nafrozen up for ten months. Early in May, vigator,-to have discovered so many new however, parties were sent out on foot to lands, islands, and bays ---to have estabexplore in various directions, as well as to lished the much-contested existence of a seek for game. Musk oxen, deer, hares, Polar Sea, north of America, and to and ptarmigan, (a bird resembling a par- bring back his crew in a sound and vigortridge,) ducks, and geese, became plenty. ous state, were enough to raise his name The hunters were tolerably successful, and above that of any other arctic navigator." the addition of fresh provisions was very Another expedition was immediately deacceptable.

cided on, and the command tendered to The greatest cold experienced was on this efficient officer.

PARRY'S SECOND VOYAGE, 1821-22-23:

The sole object of this expedition, was high latitudes. “The vallies were richly clad the discovery of a north-west passage. The with grass and moss, the birds singing, ships selected for it were the Fury of 377 butterflies and other insects displaying the tons, and the Hecla of 375 tons. Captain most gaudy tints, so that the sailors might Parry commanded the former and Captain have fancied themselves in some happier Lyon the latter vessel. They left England climate, had not the mighty piles of ice in on the 8th May 1821, accompanied by a the Frozen Strait told a different tale." transport, with stores and provisions, which Hunting parties were sent out which prowere to be transhipped on reaching the ice, cured a variety of game. where their field of explorations began. To follow the narrative of this expedi

Captain Parry, it will be remembered, tion, which abounds in events of the most in his first expedition, discovered a broad interesting character, for a polar subject, channel opening from the southerly side of would be quite beyond the limits of this Barrow's Strait, since known as Prince brief sketch. Though much more was acRegent's Inlet. This he believed com- complished in point of distance, in the first municated with the American Coast, and expedition of Parry, than in this, the numthat the lands which lay on either side of ber and the variety of incident was greater it, were islands. It was also an opinion, in the latter. Esquimaux were seen at pretty generally believed, that Repulse many places, with whom the most friendly Bay had not been thoroughly explored by intercourse was held, and the long tedium Captain Middleton in his attempt to find of two Arctic winters was much relieved by a north-west passage in 1741—that he the contiguity of villages of these people. might have been deceived by the appear- In fact, none of the Arctic navigators have ance of the ice and by fogs, and that an had so favorable an opportunity to study opening might still be found through this the habits of the Esquimaux as Captain bay. Another point of discussion was a Parry did in this expedition, and the pages passage known as Frozen Strait.

The ex- of his narrative are much enlivened by the amination of these passages or inlets interesting accounts of them. As little has were therefore prominent objects of the ex- been said in this paper of the natives, it pedition.

may not be amiss to quote a short accoant “After the most anxious consideration,” | of a party which established themselves near solution of attempting the direct passage Parry accompanied them to their huts : of the Frozen Strait, though, I confess, " When it is remembered that these habitanot without some apprehension of the risk tions were fully within sight of the ships, and I was incurring, and of the serious loss of

how many eyes were constantly on the look time, which, in case of failure, either from out among us for anything that could afford the non-existence of the strait, or from the variety or interest to our present situation, our insuperable obstacles which its name im- surprise may be imagined at finding an estabplies, would thus be inevitably occasioned

lishment of five huts, with canoes, sledges,

dogs, and above sixty men, women, and chilby the expedition.” Parry was success

dren, as regularly, and to all appearance as ful in getting through this Strait as well as

permanently fixed, as if they had occupied the in tracing the coast beyond, and of proving same spot for a whole winter. In the conthe general correctness of the statements struction of these houses the only material of Middleton. Much time was lost in sett- used was snow and ice. After creeping ling these points, after which the expedi- through two low passages, each having its tion continued its examination of several arched doorway, we came to a small circular inlets and bays to the northward, through apartment, of which the roof was a perfectly

arched dome. From this three doorways, also Fox Channel to a broad opening known as

arched, led into as many inhabited apartments, the Strait of the Hecla and Fury. In some

one on each side. The interior of these preof these inlets there was an appearance of sented a scene no less novel than interesting. summer, such as is not common in such The women were seated on ihe beds at the

,

re

side of the huts, each having her little fire dow of ice, neatly fitted into the roof of each place, or lamp, with all her domestic utensils apartment." about her; the children crept behind their mothers, and the dogs, except the female ones,

Exploring parties were sent out both which were indulged with a part of the beds, years which traced the coast to a considerslunk out past us in dismay, The construc- able distance in various directions, so that tion of this inhabited part of the hut was si- much geographical knowledge was acquirmilar to that of the outer apartment, being a ed, and the fact established that there was dome formed by separate blocks of snow, laid with great regularity aud no small art, each Hecla and Fury Strait. In August 1823,

no passage leading to the west south of being cut into the shape requisite to form a substantial arch, from seven to eight feet high

the ships left their winter quarters. On in the centre, and having no support what the 17th of September 1823 they entered ever, but what this principle of building sup- Hudson's Strait, and reached England on plied. They were lighted by a circular win the 18th of November.

CAPTAIN LYON'S EXPEDITION TO REPULSE BAY,

1824.

In order to connect the Polar discoveries | age. She was so deeply laden as to destroy of Franklin eastward from Coppermine her sailing qualities and render her unRiver and the late discoveries of Parry by manageable. She reached Repulse Bay which the whole line of coast might be made near which she encountered successive gales out, the Government determined to send the of wind, and narrowly escaped foundering. Griper, under the command of Captain She was beset with the ice, epveloped in Lyon, to Repulse Bay. The expedition fogs and in a severe gale lost all her left England on the 11th June 1824. The anchors. Drifting at the mercy of the orders were to proceed to Wager River or winds and waves she was happily carried Repulse Bay ; to cross Melville Peninsula by the current out of danger. The season on foot; then to follow the western shore having passed without effecting anything, of that peninsula, and the northern shore of and not thinking it prudent to continue in North America to the extreme point reach- those boisterous regions without anchors, ed by Franklin in 1820, called Point Captain Lyon determined very prudently Turnagain.

to abandon the voyage, and make the best The Griper, although she had been em- of his way to England, where he arrived in ployed by Captain Clavering in the Green- safety on the 10th of November. land seas proved herself unfit for this voy

CLAVERINGS AND SABINE'S VOYAGE TOWARDS THE NORTH POLE, 1823.

This voyage, although it was sent out | bergen; afterward to make the east coast for the purpose of reaching the Pole, is of Greenland, in as high a latitude as the deserving of insertion here. This expedi- barrier of ice would permit, and having got tion consisted of the gun-brig Griper, com- within the barrier, to ascend the coast to manded by Captain Clavering. Captain the northward as far as might be compatiSabine, since well known for his contribu- ble the same year, in order to obtain a tions to science, accompanied the expedi- third pendulum station for Captain Sation to make scientific experiments. The bine's experiments at the highest degree of plan of the voyage was, “ to proceed to latitude that might be there obtained.” A Hammerfest, near the North Cape in Nor- fourth station, if desired, was to be selectway, in the 70th degree north latitude, ed in Iceland, or any other place in the thence to a second station, in or near the same parallel, if desired. 80th parallel, on the northern coast of Spitz- Aftar visiting Hammerfest, the expedition sailed on the 3d June, was in sight of returned to the station, which he reached Spitzbergen in four days, and on the 30th, on the 11th of July. rounded Hakluyt’s Headland and dropped Captain Sabine having completed his anchor. The tents and instruments were operations, and procured an abundant disembarked and set upon shore. Captain supply of rein deer for provisions, the Sabine, two officers, and six men, then ship sailed to the eastern coast of Greenlanded, to carry on their pendulum obser- land, in about the latitude of 74° the highvations. They were provided with a est known point on the coast, where they launch, six months' provisions and fuel, to landed. “Never was there a more desocarry them to Hammerfest in case of ne- late spot seen,” says Clavering, “Spitzcessity. The Griper then left, Captain bergen was, on the whole, a paradise to it.” Clavering having determined to push as He then stood to the northward till stopped far northward as possible. On the second by the ice in lat., 75° 12', which he supday out he reached the pack ice, but twen- posed the N. E. point of Greenland. A ty-five miles from the island, extending party of 12 Esquimaux were found here, east and west as far as the eye could reach. with whom they held intercourse. The The latitude observed was 800 20'. expedition remained on the coast till the After tracing the margin of the ice for six- 13th of September, during which time ty miles west and finding it trending to the Captain Sabine, was enabled to complete South, and everywhere closely packed, he his operations. They then sailed for deemed it useless to proceed farther, and England.

PARRY'S THIRD VOYAGE, 1824, 1825.

Captain Parry was placed in command found free from ice. They had not proof a third expedition for the discovery of a ceeded far, however, before their progress North-west passage, which sailed from was obstructed by the new ice which had England on the 19th of May, 1824. already begun to make across the Strait, This expedition consisted of two ships, the Opposing winds and a strong current settHecla and Fury, the same which were em- ing eastward,' tended still more to check ployed in the last expedition, the latter their progress, and in one night they vessel being placed under the command of drifted between eight and nine leagues Captain Hoppner. Their instructions were westward. On the 26th of September an to make the best of their way to Lancaster easterly wind sprang up which wafted the Sound, thence through Barrow's Strait to ships rapidly towards Prince Regent's Inlet, Prince Regent's Inlet, by which channel which they reached, and took up their it was believed he would be able to proceed winter quarters in Port Brown, on the 1st westward to Behring's Strait.

of October. The dreary winter passed off The ships entered the middle ice in as usual, and without accident. The Baffin's Bay on the 17th July. “From mercury in the thermometer did not rise this time,” says Parry, “ the obstructions above zero till the 10th of April, having from the quantity, magnitude, and close- remained below that point for one hundred ness of the ice, were such as to keep our and thirty one successive days. people constantly employed in heaving, As in former expeditions, parties were warping, or sawing through it, and yet sent to explore the coasts in different diwith so little success, that at the close rections before the breaking up of the ice, of July we had only penetrated seventy which took place on the 12th of July, and miles to the westward." They narrowly on the 19th the ships got clear, and stood escaped being crushed, and it was not across to the western shore of the inlet. until the 9th of September that they suc- They followed this shore southward for ceeded in releasing themselves from this several days in the passage between the ice icy barrier. On the 10th of September and the shore, until a change of wind they entered Lancaster Sound, which they brought the ice upon them, forcing them

narrow

into shallow water, and causing them to Barrow's Strait on the 1st September. ground. They made several

They found Baffin's Bay still clear of ice, escapes here, but the Fury was so much and meeting with no obstructions, reached injured that it was necessary to take out England on the 12th of October. her stores and heave her down. After This last attempt was the least successmaking the necessary repairs, her stores ful of either of Parry's Voyages. No inwere again embarked, only to be removed formation regarding a western passage had ashore again, three days after, when the been obtained, and the additions to our ship again grounded, without any hope of arctic geography consisted in extending the getting her off.

The summer was now line of coast but a short distance beyond rapidly passing away, and prompt mea- what was previously known. The contrisures were necessary in this dilemma. It butions to natural history were equally was therefore determined to land the stores meagre. The shores of Prince Regent's of the Fury, take her officers and crew on Inlet were found to be the “ most barren, board the Hecla, and proceed at once to the most dreary and desolate, that have England

been seen, not excepting Melville Island ; It was now the 27th of August. A not merely desolate of human beings, but favorable wind enabled them to reach the almost deprived of animal and vegetable western shore of Prince Regent's Inlet, life.” Astronomical and magnetical obwhence, after a few days' preparation in servations were made as in former voyages, getting the ship ready for her voyage, she the results of which are appended to the sailed on the last of August, and entered | narrative of this voyage.

PARRY'S POLAR VOYAGE, 1827.

The fourth voyage of this distinguished on the 19th, where they took on board navigator (or rather the fifth, as his first eight rein-deer, and a supply of moss to voyage was with Captain John Ross), was feed them upon, and on the 14th of May totally different from the preceding. This rounded Hakluyt's Headland in Spitzberwas to reach the North Pole in the most gen. On the 8th of June the boats took direct manner; first by a ship as far as the their departure with 71 days' provisions, ice would permit, and then by travelling with a clear sea. The second day they with sledge-boats over the ice, availing reached the pack ice in latitude 81° 12° themselves of any spaces of water that 51”. As the daylight is constant in these might occur.

high latitudes, the sun continually above Two boats were constructed for the ex- the horizon, during the summer season, pedition, “twenty feet long and seven broad, Captain Parry chose that portion of the flat-floored, and as stout as wood and iron twenty-fours which corresponded with could make them ; and so fitted as to con- night for travelling, and rested during the tain nautical and other instruments, bags day. The sun was higher during the day of biscuit, pemmican, clothing and other hours, and oppressive to the eyes, while stores.” A bamboo mast, a tarred duck the heat rendered it more comfortable for sail, answering also the purpose of an sleeping. “This travelling by night,” says awning, paddles, boat hooks, &c., com- Parry," and sleeping by day, so completely pleted each boat's complement. Two offi- inverted the natural order of things, that cers and twelve men, were selected for the it was difficult to persuade ourselves of the crew of each. “Each boat, with all her reality ; nor could we, even with pocket furniture, tools, instruments, clothing, and chronometers, always bear in mind at what provisions of every kind, weighed 3753 part of the 24 hours we had arrived.” A pounds, exclusive of four sledges." brief sketch of their mode of living may be

With this expedition Captain Parry interesting : sailed in the Hecla, on the 4th of April, “ Being rigged for travelling," says Captain 1827, reached Hammerfest, in Norway, Parry, “we breakfasted on warm cocoa and

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