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long and five feet four inches broad, and on the Mackenzie River. On the 4th adapted for six rowers, a steersman and July Capt. Franklin took the western an officer, could be easily carried on the channel where the river branched off shoulders of six men. Their boats were towards its mouth, while Dr. Richardson shipped direct to York Factory and thence took the eastern branch with his party. across the country, through the various Large numbers of Esquimaux were met at rivers and small lakes, to await Captain the river's mouth with whom Franklin had Franklin at Methye River. Every man a difficulty. They plundered some of his in the party was provided with water-proof boats, and the quarrel would have termidresses, and all that could add to their nated in bloodshed, had it not been for his comfort and ensure the safety of the ex- great forbearance. The Esquimaux inpedition, was procured.

terpreter made a speech to his countrymen, The expedition sailed from Liverpool on in which he made known the great love the 16th of February 1825,-passed which the white people had for them, which through New York, Albany and the great induced them to return much of the plunlakes to Lake Superior; thence through the dered property, and exacted a promise Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnepeg from them to behave better in future. to the Methye River where they overtook The Esquimaux apologized by saying that their boats on the 29th June. The season “they had never seen white men before, and had so far advanced before they reached all the things in the boats were so very Mackenzie River that they determined to beautiful and desirable, that it was impospone the great expedition till the ensu- possible not to steal them.” The expediing summer. They accordingly establish- tion proceeded along the shore of the Polar ed their winter quarters on the banks of Sea with some interruption from the ice Great Bear Lake, by erecting substantial and fogs until the 16th August, when they houses which they called Fort Franklin. / had reached 150° W longitude, or about Lieutenant Back, a young officer, who ac

one half the distance from Mackenzie companied Franklin in his first expedition, River to Icy Cape. A perceptible change superintended the arrangements here, whilé had now taken place in the weather. Captain Franklin determined to descend Vegetation assumed an autumnal aspect, . Mackenzie River, take a view of the Polar and ice began to form at night on the Sea, and return before the winter set in. pools of fresh water. The Esquimaux This voyage he performed without difficul- | lately so numerous had ceased to appear; ty and returned to his winter quarters on

the deer were bastening from the coast, the 5th September. Dr. Richardson re- and the migratory birds were winging their turned at the same time from some east- way to more genial climes. It was thereern explorations. In the meantime the fore, resolved to return. Accordingly, on Canadians and Indians were occupied in the 18th August the boats began their hunting and fishing, by which means abun voyage eastward to Mackenzie River, dant stores of provisions were secured for which they reached without accident on their winter's use.

the 4th September; and proceeding at The daily product of the nets during the

once up that river, arrived in safety at autumn was eight hundred herring-salmon.

Fort Franklin, where Dr. Richardson arA supply of fuel was also collected and rived a few days before. piled up for use. The prospect before

Dr. Richardson in his exploration of the them was, therefore, very different from

Polar Sea eastward from Mackenzie River that which they had experienced in their met with no obstacles to retard his proprevious winter residence in these regions. gress, and was enabled to accomplish his Nothing of importance occurred during voyage to the Coppermine River, a digtheir long winter. The officers instructed

tance of 500 miles, between the 4th July the men in reading, writing, and arith- and the 8th of August. He then proceeded metic during the long evenings, and divine up that river and reached the winter quarservice was held on Sunday, which was

ters of the party on the 1st of September. always kept as a day of rest.

After a winter spent at Fort Franklin the On the 28th June the party embarked expedition, in the following summer, re






To co-operate with Parry and Frank- | now late in the season, and prudence dictalin, it was determined by the British go- ted to the party that it was unsafe to provernment to send an expedition to Behr- ceed farther, as there was danger that the ing's Strait. Capt. F. W. Beechey in the ice might close in upon them and prevent Blossom, a 24 gun ship, was destined for their escape. They therefore began a rethis service, and sailed from England on treat towards their rendezvous, at Chamisso the 19th of May, 1825. A boat to be Island, which they reached on the 9th Sepused as a tender, built as large as could be tember not without difficulty, having been carried on the deck of the ship, was taken “ thickly beset with ice, that threatened out. She was schooner rigged, decked, every moment to close with its impenetraand fitted out in the best manner.

able walls and cut off their return." The On the 22d July 1826, which was as result of this voyage was the addition of early as it was desirable to be in the Polar an extensive line of coast to our Polar geSea, Captain Beechey anchored in Kotze- ography; and a comparison of notes shewed bue Sound, after surveying a portion of that but 146 miles intervened between the which, he proceeded to Chamisso Island, expedition of Captains Beechey and Frankwhere he was directed to await Captain lin, who were on this coast at the same Franklin. Leaving the barge for the pur- time. Captain Franklin afterwards aspose of following the coast, he proceeded serted, that had he "been aware of the fact northward with his ship and passed Icy of his near proximity to the barge of the Cape. On the 17th of August, as the Blossom, no difficulties or dangers would channel between the ice and the shore was have prevailed on him to return.” It was not wide enough to trust his ship farther, the great object of his ambition to reach he despatched the barge under the com- | Icy Cape, and he doubtless would have acmand of Mr. Elson to trace the shore as complished it, or perished in the attempt. far eastward as possible. The barge pro

The following year, Captain Beechey receeded as far as a prominent headland which turned to the Arctic Sea, and endeavored to was called Cape Barrow. This point, the extend his survey beyond the point attainmost northerly part of the American con- ed by him in 1826 ; but the severity of tinent yet formed the terminus to a spit the weather obliged him to return before of land discovered jutting out several he had reached Icy Cape. miles from the regular coast line. It was

SIR JOHN ROSS'S SECOND VOYAGE, 1829-30-31-32-33.

IN 1828, Captain John Ross whose for the purpose specified. Mr. Felix name appears first among those who at- Booth a distinguished merchant of London tempted to discover a North West Passage, prompted by a desire to promote the and whose mistake in passing Lancaster scheme of Captain Ross, then generously Sound, lost to him the honor and renown came forward, and advanced the amount which were gained by his successor Captain necessary for the expedition. Parry, felt ambitious to resume the under- The Victory steamer of 150 tons was taking and make another effort to make accordingly equipped for the voyage. A this passage. He proposed to government great interest was excited in the enterprise a plan to explore the Polar Sea, with a and many officers in the navy tendered steam vessel, but they were tired with an their services to Captain Ross. He gave enterprise which had lost its novelty, and the preference to his nephew Commander determined to send out no more expeditions James C. Ross who had been in all the late Arctic voyages. 22 men and an officer | wards told by the most intelligent natives completed the party. With these he put that a passage existed far to the North, to sea on the 7th of June, and on the 28th which was doubtless Barrow's Strait. of July found himself off Disco Island. Several parties left the ship in April Their steam-engine proved a failure, for in and May to explore the adjacent shores, the few instances in which they used it it accompanied by the Esquimaux as guides. did not propel her but a mile and a half an The most important of these was one hoar. On the 6th of August they entered under the younger Ross, who, crossing the Lancaster Sound, and with a favorable isthmus of Boothia reached the sea, the wind, two days after, reached the opposite shores of which he traced to a point about shore of Prince Regent's Inlet on the 11th. / 200 miles from the ship. The shore Steering southward they came to the place trended westward in the direction of Point where Captain Parry's ship, the Fury, was Turnagain, but his stock of provisions abandoned. Her stores they found in would not permit him to reach it. He excellent condition, but every vestige of therefore, was compelled to return, reachthe ship had been carried away by the ice. ing the ship on the 13th May, after an After taking an abundant supply of pro- absence of 27 days. visions and coal, they worked their way Summer now came; the ice and snow slowly on, obliged to steer by the wind and melted with great rapidity; the country sun; for the near proximity to the mag- was inundated with water, and the surface netic pole had rendered their compass of the ocean could not be traversed. All useless. Enveloped in fogs, and sur- the efforts of the crew were directed to rounded by icebergs, their progress was the extrication of the vessel. But month full of difficulties and dangers, yet they after month rolled on; the height of sumforced on their little barque, and dur- mer passed, and the sea still remained ing the months of August and Septem- bound in icy chains.” August passed ber had traced 300 miles of coast previ- away and left them fixed to the same ously unknown, attaining a position within dreary spot where they had been for eleven 280 miles of Franklin's Point Turnagain. months. On the 17th of September, By the end of September the snow fell “ with a transport of joy, they found thick; the thermometer sunk below the themselves free,” and the gallant ship freezing point; huge masses of ice hemmed again moved forward about three miles, them in on every side, and on the 7th of when her farther progress was arrested by October they went into winter quarters. a ridge of ice. The following day there

The usual preparations were now made was a heavy fall of snow, and in the evenfor the winter; banks of snow were raised ing a gale sprang up from the North, which around the ship, and a roof of canvas continuing for three days, brought with it placed on her. Her stoves kept up a a crowd of floating ice and huge icebergs, temperature of 45° during the coldest crowding the whole together with the weather, which was quite warm enough for ship, towards the shore. A few days after health.

they were frozen up and the sea presented A party of Esquimaux took up their an unbroken surface of ice. “It was," quarters near the ship, and a friendly in- says Captain Ross' “as if the northern tercourse was kept up between them. ocean were sending all its stores into this Some of these people exhibited much geo- quarter,” and then wedging them as firmly graphical knowledge, tracing out on paper into the bay as the rocks themselves. the line of the coast for a great distance They were now frozen up for a second with remarkable accuracy:

On speaking winter, and it was found necessary to to them of the places visited by Captain lessen the usual allowance of provisions. Parry about Repulse Bay, they at once Enough, however, was given to keep the recognised them, and stated that they had men in health and vigour, which they prelately been there. Captain Ross was un- served uninterruptedly during the season. able to learn whether any passage existed It was, nevertheless, a dreary one, to the Westward, though he was told that monotony of their situation pressing upon a great sea lay in that direction, which them with increasing severity.” proved to be the case. They were after- In the spring, exploring parties were

6 the

again sent out.

Commander Ross pro- winter, but four miles from their late winceeded north ward in search of a western ter station. opening but found none. Captain Ross and other officers went in other directions. The " The spirits of the adventurers now began most important journey, however, was a

to droop in earnest. They soon became sen

sible that, at all events, it would be perilous later one performed by Commander Ross in

to wait another season in the hope of extricasearch of the Magnetic Pole.

ting the vessel, in which they could never reCalculations had been made by the learn- turn to England, and had no alternative but ed, which piaced this interesting spot in to abandon her amid the Arctic regions. Their latitude 700 north, and longitude 989 30 only means of escape was to proceed in boats, west, and it was one of the objects of this

or draw them over the ice, to the wreck of the voyage to discover the spot. In Command- Fury, when after supplying themselves with a

fresh stock of provisions out of her stores, er Ross's journey the previous year, he

they might reach Davis's Straits, and relurn passed within ten miles of it, but had not

in one of the whale ships." instruments with him to make the requisite experiments. “To this point, therefore, Up to this time the whole party had enhe directed his course. The journey was joyed excellent health. Now, the scurvy tedious and laborious, not only from the began to shew itself; yet the long and terigor of the season, and the ruggedness of dious winter was passed much as in prethe surface, but from the care with which vious years, and the spring found them he examined the country.” On the 1st ready to abandon their vessel. The stores of June, he reached the spot where his own of the Fury lay 180 miles off, in a direct calculations fixed the Magnetic Pole, line ; but the windings which it would be which was 70°5' 17 north, and longitude necessary to make, increased the journey 96° 46' 45 west. The instruments were to 300 miles. There was no other hope put in motion and the amount of the dip of of


left for them but to reach these the needle found to be 890 59', being only stores, and they determined to make the atonc minute less than 90°, the vertical po- tempt. sition, which would precisely have indica- On the 23d of April 1832, they commented the polar station ; and the horizontal ced the labor of carrying their provisions, needles when suspended in the most deli- clothing and boats over the ice; but it cate manner possible, did not shew the was impossible to carry all, except by makslightest tendency to move. He looked in ing many journeys. By the 21st of May vain for some object to mark the spot. they had accomplished but 30 miles dis

16 Nature had here erected no monu- tance to reach which their journey amment to denote the spot which she had ounted to 329 miles. On leaving the Vicchosen as the centre of one of her great tory for the last time, they hoisted her and dark powers

Commander Ross er- colors, nailed them to the mast, and drank ected a pile of stones and returned to the a parting glass to her. After the most ship.

fatiguing and incessant labor, in transportThe summer of 1831 now arrived, and ing their boats to a safe and accessible on the 29th of August the ship left her point, they made their way with their stores winter quarters. She was soon stopped by to Fury Beach, which they reached on the adverse winds and bad weather.

1st July storm came on with a heavy gale, and they They now set to work, and built a house again found themselves completely sur- of canvas for their residence, until the ice rounded with masses of ice. They watch- permitted their leaving. The boats were ed an opportunity to escape through any next repaired and fitted ; and they now channels in the ice that might be present- awaited the moment when some channels ed, but they watched in vain. On the 14th of water would permit them to set out on of September they were enabled to take ex- their

On the 1st of August there ercise by skating on the new ice which had was an open sea to a considerable distance formed around them. A few days later, when they embarked, but the dangers to all hope of escape vanished and they found which they were constantly exposed from themselves fixed in the ice for a third the masses of floating ice, obliged them


A snow

often to seek the beach for safety. On soon reached Barrow's Strait which they the 29th of August they reached Barrow's found open and navigable though obstructStrait, where they landed and pitched their ed with floating ice. They made rapid tents. They attempted to run along the progress until contrary winds met them, shore of the Strait with their boats but which detained them four days. On the found it impossible. The whole Strait 25th they made Navy Board Inlet where was firmly closed with ice, and had been they landed for the night. so during the whole summer. Ascending The next morning a sail was seen. Sigthe neighboring mountains, they saw an nals were made but she did not descry impenetrable barrier of ice before them, them. A breeze sprang up and the sail and that it would be impossible to reach soon vanished from their sight. A second the sea eastward. To return to Fury soon after appeared. The weather beBeach was their only hope. On the 24th came calm, when by hard rowing the boats of September they retraced their steps, but approached so near that their signals were were only able to get balf-way in their discovered. A boat was now scen coming boats, when they were stopped by the ice. from the ship, and on approaching, the They now hauled them high up on the mate asked them if they wanted aid, beach for safety, where they left them ; supposing them to be the crew of a whaleput their provision on sledges, and made man, who had lost their vessel. On being their way to Fury Beach where they ar- asked by Captain Ross where their ship rived on the 7th of October.

was from and her name, they replied that As the frail canvas house was to be their it was the Isabella of Hull, formerly comabode for the fourth winter, which had al- manded by Captain Ross. On being told ready set in with severity, they endeavor- that this gentleman stood before them, they ed to make it comfortable by covering, and replied that it must be a mistake, as he had raising walls of snow around it. Stoves been dead at least two years. Captain were set up and a temperature of 510 main- Ross soon satisfied them of the reality, tained. “But the winter as it advanced, when they hastened to the ship where he proved one of great severity; and the slight and his party received a most cordial rewalls could no longer keep up a comfort-ception. "Every man was hungry, and able heat.” For food they were pretty had to be fed ; all were ragged and were to well off. The stores of the Fury furnish- be clothed; it was washing, dressing, shaved them with a reduced allowance of pre-ing, eating, all intermingled.” Then came served meats; but plenty of flour, sugar, a thousand questions and the news of what soups, and vegetables. In February, the had transpired in the world during their carpenter died of scurvy, and many of the four years' absence. On the 13th of Sepseamen were attacked with the same dis- tember they fell in with the fleet of whalease. Their situation was now becoming aw- ers on the fishing ground, when all the capful, and unless liberated in the approaching tains came on board to welcome them, summer, death was inevitable.

bringing presents from their stores. On In April and May they carried forward the 30th, the fishery being no longer practo their boats a supply of provisions. To ticable, the Isabella left Davis's Straits, accomplish this many journeys were ne- and on the 12th October reached Stromcessary, as in the previous year; and, al- The news of the arrival of Captain though the distance to their boats was but Ross spread like lightning through the 32 miles, their journeyings amounted to kingdom. for no modern enterprise of the 256 miles. Having effected this, they re- kind had created so strong a sensation. turned to their canvas house where they All hope of their return having fled, they remained until the sth of July, when they were now looked on as men risen from set off, carrying with them the sick, and in the grave. Crowds rushed to see them four days reached their boat station. Here on their way to London. The officers were they anxiously awaited the breaking up of all promoted and eligible places given them. the ice. On the 15th of August a lane of Captain Ross was knighted, and a comwater appearing, they launched their boats, mittee of the House of Commons recomembarked their provisions and stores, and mended a grant of £5000 to him for his got under way with a fair wind. They services. In conclusion, it should be ob


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