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EXPANSION.

A simple sentence may be converted into a complex sentence by changing some word or phrase into a clause.

A complex sentence may be converted into a compound sentence by changing a clause into an independent member.

The process by which these changes are made is called expansion. The following examples illustrate the method:

Simple.—The wise man is the man of years.
Complex.-The man that is wise is the man of years.
Simple.—The enemy, beaten at all points, surrendered.
Complex.—The enemy, which had been beaten at all points, sur-

rendered.

Simple.Oppressed by the heat, we sought the cool shade. Complex.-We sought the cool shade, because we were oppressed

by the heat. Compound.-We were oppressed by the heat, hence we sought the

cool shade.

EXERCISE XXVI.

DIRECTION.—Expand the following simple sentences into complex, and state whether the clause thus introduced is adjectival, adverbial, or substantive :

1. My friend's account of the affair alarmed me.

2. An old man on horseback passed us on the road between Monticello and Charlottesville.

3. The most difficult tasks are overcome by perseverance.
4. Why have you kept this news from me so long ?
5. A horseman wrapped in a huge cloak entered the yard.
6. And seeing the multitudes, he went up into the mountain.

7. Thus, after a siege of fifty-three days, was Constantinople irretrievably subdued by the arms of Mahomet the Second.

8. The Indians with surprise found the moldering trees of their forests suddenly teeming with ambrosial sweets.

9. Two of the bee-hunters now plied their axes vigorously at the root of the tree, to level it with the ground.

10. My heart was filled with a deep melancholy to see several dropping unexpectedly in the midst of mirth and jollity.

11. Several of them in the act of striking at the enemy fell down from mere weakness.

12. The great qualities of Charlemagne were indeed alloyed by the vices of a barbarian and a conqueror.

13. Jerusalem has derived some reputation from the number and importance of her memorable sieges.

14. To form an adequate idea of the duties of this crisis, it will be necessary to raise your minds to a level with your station.

EXERCISE XXVII.

DIRECTION.—Expand the following simple sentences into complex, and then, if possible, into compound:

1. Through this dismayed and bewildered multitude, the disconsolate family of their gallant general made their way silently to the shore.

2. My companion, climbing up alone, and already nearly asleep, laid himself down with his head upon the precious portmanteau.

3. At Athens, at once the center and capital of Greek philosophy and heathen superstition, takes place the first public and direct conflict between Christianity and Paganism.

4. At the same time, the good old knight, with a mixture of the father and the master of the family, tempered the inquiries after his own affairs with several kind questions relating to themselves.

5. At the top of the stair we saw a small tray, with a single plate and glasses for one solitary person's dinner.

6. Often in the narrations of history and fiction, an agent of the most dreadful designs compels a sentiment of deep respect for the unconquerable mind displayed in their execution.

7. Accordingly, they got a painter by the knight's directions to add a pair of whiskers to the face, and, by a little aggravation of the features, to change it into the Saracen's Head.

8. In the first chapter of Don Quixote, Cervantes, with a few strokes of a great master, sets before us the pauper gentleman, an

Rhet.-6

early riser and keen sportsman, idle for the most part of the year, but fond of reading books of chivalry.

9. Of an idle, unrevolving man the kindest Destiny, like the most assiduous potter without a wheel, can bake and knead nothing other than a botch.

10. Then the road passing straight on through a waste moor, the towers of a distant city at length appear before the traveler.

11. Amid all the buzzing noise of the games and the perpetual passing in and out of people, he seemed perfectly calm and abstracted, without the smallest particle of excitement in his composition.

12. The stutterer had almost finished his travels through Europe and part of Asia, without ever budging beyond the liberties of the King's Bench, except in term-time, with a tip-staff for his companion.

13. He wore an ample cloak of black sheep's wool, faded into a dull brown, and recently refreshed by an enormous patch of the original color.

14. One window there was—a perfect and unpretending cottage window, with little diamond panes, embowered at almost every season of the year with roses; and, in the summer and autumn, with a profusion of jasmine and other fragrant shrubs.

15. The foremost, a somewhat tall young woman, with the most winning expression of benignity upon her features, advanced to me, presenting her hand with an air frank enough to dispel every shadow of embarrassment.

EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

REPRODUCTION III.

THE INCHCAPE ROCK.

No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,
The ship was still as she could be;
Her sails from heaven received no motion;
Her keel was steady in the ocean.
Without either sign or sound of their shock,
The waves flowed over the Inchcape Rock;
So little they rose, so little they fell,
They did not move the Inchcape Bell.

The Abbot of Aberbrothok
Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock;
On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung,
And over the waves its warning rung.

When the Rock was hid by the surge's swell,
The mariners heard the warning bell;
And then they knew the perilous rock,
And blessed the Abbot of Aberbrothok.

The sun in heaven was shining gay;
All things were joyful on that day;
The sea-birds screamed as they wheeled round,
And there was joyance in their sound.

The buoy of the Inchcape Bell was seen,
A darker speck on the ocean green:
Sir Ralph the Rover walked his deck,
And he fixed his eye on the darker speck.

He felt the cheering power of spring;
It made him whistle, it made him sing;
His heart was mirthful to excess,
But the Rover's mirth was wickedness.

His eye was on the Inchcape float;
Quoth he, “My men, put out the boat,
And row me to the Inchcape Rock,
And I'll plague the Abbot of Aberbrothok.”

The boat is lowered, the boatmen row,
And to the Inchcape Rock they go;
Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,
And he cut the bell from the Inchcape float.

Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound;
The bubbles rose and burst around;
Quoth Sir Ralph, “The next who comes to the rock
Won't bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.”

Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away;
He scoured the seas for many a day;
And now, grown rich with plundered store,
He steers his course for Scotland's shore.

So thick a haze o'erspreads the sky,
They can not see the sun on high;
The wind hath blown a gale all day;
At evening it hath died away.

On the deck the Rover takes his stand;
So dark it is, they see no land.
Quoth Sir Ralph, “It will be lighter soon,
For there is the dawn of the rising moon.'

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“Canst hear,” said one, “the breakers roar ?
For methinks we should be near the shore."
“Now where we are I can not tell,
But I wish we could hear the Inchcape Bell.”

They hear no sound; the swell is strong;
Though the wind hath fallen, they drift along,
Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock:
“O Christ! it is the Inchcape rock!"
Sir Ralph the Rover tore his hair;
He cursed himself in his despair;
The waves rush in on every side;
The ship is sinking beneath the tide.

But, even in his dying fear,
One dreadful sound could the Rover hear-
A sound as if, with the Inchcape Bell,
The Devil below was ringing his knell.

ROBERT SOUTHEY.

TOPICAL OUTLINE.

Introduction.—The dead calm-no wind to stir a sail, nor wave to move the Inchcape Bell. The bell-placed where, how, by whom?

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