« ZurückWeiter »
The past perfect subjunctive is used:
To express, as past, a supposition implying the contrary; thus, "If he had repented [which he did not], I should have forgiven him.”
2. Indicative Mode.—A conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, or as a mere uncertainty, requires the indicative mode. Thus: "If he was there, I did not see him"; "If this man is innocent, he ought to be liberated"; "If the boy is sick, he should be excused.”
Correct these sentences, and give reason for the change:
I wish I was at home.
If he know his lesson, he may go out to play.
Was gold more abundant, it would be of less value.
It is cold, though the sky be clear.
Lock the door lest a robber enters.
If any man were unjustly censured, it is he.
We shall start now unless it rain.
If I was he I would accept your offer.
If he is but discreet, he will succeed.
RULE XV.-Distinguish between adjectives and adverbs.
These are often confounded by using an adjective for an adverb, or by using an adverb for an adjective.
1. To express time, place, degree, or manner, an adverb should be used; as, "I suffer greatly"; "He ran very swiftly."
2. To express quality, an adjective should be used; as, "The flowers smell sweet"; "She looks beautiful”; “He feels strong.'
Correct the errors in the following, and give reason for the correction:
He acted agreeable to his promise.
He was dressed fine, but he acted fearful bad.
That was a remarkable fine sermon.
The work goes on slower than we expected.
Her new dress looked very prettily.
The people are miserable poor, but tolerable contented.
RULE XVI.—In general, correspondent parts of a sentence should be similarly constructed.
This principle is violated:
(1) In the union of ancient and modern forms (especially of verbs and of pronouns); as, "He giveth [gives] us good advice whenever he comes to see us"; "My father loveth [loves] flowers, but he loves his children better"; "Honor thy father and thy mother, if you would [thou wouldst] be blessed.”
(2) In the union of different modes; as, "If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them goes [go] astray,” etc.; "Had I spoken to him, and he would have replied" [had replied].
(3) In the union of auxiliary with simple forms; as, "This opinion never has [prevailed] and never can prevail"; "He does not [live there] and has not lived there since his election."
(4) In the union of plural with singular forms; as, "I do not doubt thee; but ye do [thou dost] not try to avoid the appearance of evil."
(5) In the union of dissimilar elements by co-ordinate connectives; as, "The delay was not an accident, but premeditated" [accidental but premeditated]; "The fort was
forced by the treachery of the governor and the indolent general to capitulate within a week" [indolence of the] etc.; "He embraced the cause of liberty faintly and pursued it without resolution" [irresolutely]; "The act was sinful, but it was committed without intention" [unintentional].
DIRECTION.-Justify, or criticise and correct the following:
1. I knew that you was my father's friend.
2. Ambition is one of those passions that is never satisfied.
3. Each of the soldiers have received a pension.
4. Hence arises the following advantages.
5. The rapidity of his movements were much admired.
6. Thou or he may have the book.
7. He laid down on the road and was almost froze.
8. This story by Dickens was began in All the Year Round.
9. Night Thoughts were written by Young.
10. If he was a year older I would send him to school.
11. If he know anything he surely knows that he can not go unless he gets better.
12. Thou art not the trustworthy person I hoped you were.
13. Time passes the slowest when we are unemployed.
14. I meant, when first I came, to have bought all Paris.
15. If you had have written, I would have been glad to have answered it.
16. I did not suppose it to be he.
17. He had done that correct, I am sure.
18. It had been my intention to have collected Keats' Compositions.
19. The stars look very brightly, and the wind blows coldly.
20. This was done conformable to your order.
21. A great number of people was at the convention.
22. Neither of these houses are for sale.
23. I do not know who I gave the letter to.
24. Is service real, if we do not know whom it is we serve? 25. We may, and ought to do good to others.
26. My Lord Duke's entertainments were both seldom and shabby. 27. Everything, since that event, wore a new aspect.
28. He is wiser than me.
29. It is not me you are in love with.
30. Let there be no solace left for thou and me.
31. She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.
32. This paper should properly have appeared to-morrow. 33. The following facts may or have been adduced as reasons. 34. I do not think any one to blame for taking care of their health. 35. During the last century no prime minister has become rich in office.
36. We are alone, here's none but thee and I.
37. Successful he might have been, had his horse been as ambitious as he.
38. Every one of this grotesque family were the creatures of national genius.
39. It is not fit for such as us to sit with the rulers of the land.
40. It was my intention to have arranged the contents of this new issue of The Queen's English under the parts of speech.
41. What should we gain by it that we should speedily become as poor as them?
42. The richness of her arms and apparel were conspicuous in the foremost rank.
43. The Prince was apprehensive that Waverley, if set at liberty, might have resumed his purpose of returning to England.
44. Come quick and do not hinder us.
45. We got home safe.
46. Open the door wide.
47. I heard you were here, therefore I have come.
48. Rapid rivers are seldom if ever deep.
49. How many sounds have each of the vowels?
50. Napoleon wished to have made Lucien king of Spain.
51. Nothing but vain and foolish pursuits delight some persons. 52. You think you shall go to the city, then?
53. One of the most trying things that is known to life, is to suffer alone and unjustly.
54. Let he and you consider the question before complying.
55. I regarded thee as my friend, but now I doubt your friendship. 56. They naturally prefer to stand where they would have long ago, if it were not for their mistakes.
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
THE dew was falling fast, the stars began to blink;
A snow-white mountain-lamb with a Maiden at its side.
Nor sheep nor kine were near; the lamb was all alone,
The lamb, while from her hand he thus his supper took,
'Twas little Barbara Lewthwaite, a child of beauty rare!
Right towards the lamb she looked; and from a shady place
If Nature to her tongue could measured numbers bring,
"What ails thee, young One? what? Why pull so at thy cord?
"What is it thou wouldst seek? What is wanting to thy heart?