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cons make Herreral rule. All thate was no ex.

him naturally think of revenge, and of recovering CHA P. his lost rights; 'the headlong zeal of the people who hurried him into the throne; the care of his own 1413. security, as well as his ambition, made him an usurper; and the steps have always been so few between the prisons of princes and their graves, that we need not wonder that Richard's fate was no ex. ception to the general rule. All these considerations make Henry's situation, if he retained any sense of virtue, much to be lamented; and the inquietude with which he possessed his envied greatness, and the remorses by which, it is said, he was continually haunted, render him an object of our pity, even when seated upon the throne. But it must be owned, that his prudence and vigilance and foresight in maintaining his power, were admirable: His command of temper remarkable: His courage, both military and political, without blemish : And he possessed many qualities which fitted him for his high station, and which rendered his usurpation of it, though pernicious in after-times, rather salutary during his own reign, to the English nation.

HENRY was twice married: By his first wife, Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heir of the earl of Hereford, he had four sons, Henry, his successor in the throne, Thomas, duke of Clarence, John, duke of Bedford, and Humphrey, duke of Glocester; and two daughters, Blanche and Philippa, the former married to the duke of Bavaria, the latter to the king of Denmark. His second wife, Jane, whom he married after he was king, and who was daughter of the king of Navarre, and widow of the duke of Britany, brought him no issue.

By an act of the fifth of this reign, it is made felony to cut out any person's tongue, or put out his eyes; crimes which, the act says, were very frequent. This savage spirit of revenge denotes a barbarous people; though, perhaps, it was increased by the prevailing factions and civil commotions. I

This savas ich, perhaps, 1 commotionsCOMMERCE


CHAP. COMMERCE was very little understood in this reign, XVIII.

as in all the preceding. In particular, a great jealousy prevailed against merchant strangers; and many restraints were, by law, imposed upon them; namely, that they should lay out in English manufactures or commodities all the money acquired by the sale of their goods; that they should not buy or sell with one another, and that all their goods should be disposed of three months after importation. This last clause was found so inconvenient, that it was soon after repealed by parliament.

It appears that the expence of this king's household amounted to the yearly sum of 19,5001. money of that age.

GUICCIARDINI tells us, that the Flemings, in this century, learned from Italy all the refinements in arts, which they taught the rest of Europe. The progress, however, of the arts was still very slow and backward in England.

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The king's former disorders-His reformation The

Lollards-Punishment of lord Cobham-State of France Invasion of that kingdom-Battle of Azincour---State of FranceNew invasion of France -Assassination of the duke of Burgundy-Treaty of Troye-Marriage of the king-His death-and character-Miscellaneous transactions during this reign. '

THE many jealousies to which Henry IV.'s si-CHA P.

I tuation naturally exposed him, had so infected. XIX. his temper, that he had entertained unreasonable 1413. suspicions with regard .to the fidelity of his eldest The king's son; and, during the latter years of his life, he had top excluded that prince from all share in public busi. ness, and was even displeased to see him at the head of armies, where his martial talents, though useful to the support of government, acquired him a renown, which, he thought, might prove dangerous to his own authority. The active spirit of young Henry, 'restrained from its proper exercise, broke out into extravagancies of every kind; and the riot of pleasure, the frolic of debauchery, the out. rage of wine, filled the vacancies of a mind, better adapted to the pursuits of ambition and the cares of government. This course of life threw him among companions, whose disorders, if accompanied with spirit and humour, he indulged and seconded; and he was detected in many sallies, which, to severer eyes, appeared totally unworthy of his rank and station. There even remains a tradition, that, when


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CHA P. heated with liquor and jollity, he scrupled not to Las accompany his riotous associates in attacking the 1413. passengers on the streets and highways, and des

poiling them of their goods; and he found an amusement in the incidents which the terror and regret of these defencéless people produced on such occasions. This extreme of dissoluteness proved equally disagreeable to his father, as that eager application to business which had at first given him occasion of jealousy; and he saw, in his son's behaviour, the same neglect of decency, the same attachment to low company, which had degraded the personal character of Richard, and which, - more than all his errors in government, had tended to overturn his throne.' But the nation, in general, considered the young prince with more indulgence; and observed so many gleams of generosity, spirit, and magnanimity, breaking continually through the cloud which a wild conduct threw over his character, that they never ceased hoping for his amendment; and they ascribed all the weeds, which shot up in that rich soil, to the want of proper culture and attention in the king and his ministers, There happened an incident which encouraged these agreeable, views, and gave much occasion for favourable, reflections to all men of sense and candour. A riotous companion of the prince's had been indicted before Gascoigne, the chief justice, for some disorders; and Henry was not ashamed to appear at the bar with the criminal, in order to give him countenance and protection. Finding that his presence had not overawed the chief justice, he proceeded to insult that magistrate on his tribunal ; but Gascoigne, mindful of the character which he then bore, and the majesty of the sovereign and of the laws, which he sustained, ordered the prince to be carried to prison for his rude behaviour. The spectators were agreeably disappointed when they

.. ,' saw ... Hall, fol. 33.




saw the heir of the crown submit peaceably to this c H A P. sentence, make reparation for his error by acknowledging it, and check his impetuous nature in the midst of its extragavant career.

The memory of this incident, and of many others His réof a like nature, rendered the prospect of the future formation. reign nowisedisagreeable to the nation, and increased the joy which the death of so unpopular a prince as the late king naturally occasioned. The first steps taken by the young priņce confirmed all those prepossessions entertained in his favour. He called together his former companions, acquainted them with his intended reformation, exhorted them to imitate his example, but strictly inhibited them, till they had given proofs of their sincerity in this particular, from appearing any more in his presence; and he thus dismissed them with liberal presents.k The wise ministers of his father, who had checked his riots, found that they had unknowingly been paying the highest court to him; and were received with all the marks of favour and confidence. The ehief justice himself, who trembled to approach the royal presence, met with praises instead of reproaches for his past conduct, and was exhorted to persevere in the same rigorous and impartial execution of the laws. The surprise of those who expected an opposite behaviour, augmented their satisfaction; and the character of the young king appeared brighter than if it had never been shaded by any errors.

But Henry was anxious not only to repair his own misconduct, but also to make amends for those iniquities into which policy or the necessity of affairs had betrayed his father. He expressed the deepest sorrow for the fate of the unhappy Richard, did justice to the memory of that unfortunate prince, even performed his funeral obsequies with pomp and solemnity, and cherished all those who had

distinguished * Walsing: p. 382. Hall, fot. 33. Holingshed, p. 543. Godwin's life of Henry V. p. 1:

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