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ARTS, SCIENCES, AND MISCELLANEOUS
Jllustrated with nearly sir hundred Engravings.
INDOCTI DISCANT; AMENT MEMINISSE PERITI.
PRINTED FOR ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY;
AND HURST, ROBINSON, AND COMPANY, 90, CHEAPSIDE,
GOT Gothofred, OTHOFRED, or GODFREY, Denis or Diony- Scots troops under the command of William Stewart; Gotten. Gotten
and granted to the Calvinists established therein the free barg. SIUS, an eminent civil lawyer, born of an illustrious
Gottingen. house at Paris in 1549. Finding his country invol
Finding his country invol- exercise of their religion, the first place in Sweden where ved in the confusion of the leaguers, he accepted of a this toleration was permitted. The town being in 1611 professor's chair at Geneva, until he was patronized reduced to ashes by the Danes, was rebuilt in the reign and employed by Henry IV.; but being afterwards of Gustavus Adolphus in its present situation, and obstripped of his employments as a Huguenot, he at tained a confirmation of its ancient rights, with the length retired to Heidelburg, from whence no offers grant of several additional privileges. It is built in a were able to detach him.
He was, however, disap- very sigular situation. At a small distance from the pointed of bis intention to end his days there ; for the sea is a marshy plain, scarcely more than half a mile disturbances that broke out in the Palatinate obliged in breadth, watered by the rivers Gotha and Moldal, him, in 1621, to take refuge in Strasburg, where he and almost entirely enclosed with high ridges of rocks, died the following year. He wrote a great number of so bare and rugged, that they scarcely produce a single books; but bis principal work is the Corpus Juris Ci- blade of grass, and exhibit as barren an appearance as vilis, cum notis.
the summits of the loftiest Alps. Gottenburg stands
GOTHOFRED, Theodore, son of the former, was partly upon the ridges, and partly in the plain; and
born at Geneva in 1580. As soon as he had finished is divided from these different situations into the Up-
his studies, he went to Paris ; where he conformed to per and Lower Town. The latter is entirely level, in-
the Romish religion, and applied with indefatigable in- tersected by several canals in the manner of the Dutch
dustry to the study of history, that of France particu- towns; and its houses are all constructed upon piles ;
larly, wherein be became very eminent, as appears by the upper part hangs on the declivities; and rows of
his works. In 1632, the king made him one of bis buildings rise one above the other like the seats of an am.
historiographers, with a stipend of 3000 livres; and, in phitheatre. The whole is regularly fortified; and its cir-
1636, he was sent to Cologne, to assist at the treaty of cumference is pear three miles, exclusive of the suburbs,
peace negociating there on the part of France, by the called Haga, which lie toward the harbour. The
cardinal of Lyons. This treaty being removed to streets are all uniformly straight : a few of the houses
Munster, Gothofred was sent thither, where he drew are of brick; but the generality are constructed with
up Memoirs on the subject; and continued in that city, wood painted red. The harbour is formed by two
in the king's service, to his death in 1649. His princi- chains of rocks, and is about a quarter of a mile in
pal work is his “ Account of the Ceremonial of the breadth. Its entrance is defended by the fort of New
kings of France."
Elfsborg, which stands upon a small rocky island, and
GOTTENBURG, or GOTHEBURG, a rich and strong contains a garrison of 250 men. There is at Gotten-
town of West Gothland, in Sweden, with a good har- burg a Royal Society of Sciences and Literature, upon
bour, at the niouth of the river Gothelba ; which is the the plan of that of Upsala.-Mr Coxe was informed by
best situated for foreign trade of any in Sweden, as it a merchant who had resided 22 years at Gottenburg,
lies without the Sound. It occupies the site of an an- that, during that period, its population bad increased
cient town, named Lodese, which was built by Gustavus considerably, and that it now contained about 30,000
Vasa ; and being endowed with considerable privileges, inhabitants. This flourishing state is attributed to the
soon became the great emporium for the trade of the extension of its coinmerce, particularly its East India
western provinces. Charles IX. when duke of Goth- Company, and the success of the herring-fishery. An
land, having in 1604 laid the foundations of a new town English consul and several merchants of our nation
in the island of Hisingen, at no great distance from Lo- reside at Gottenburg: and a chapel, with a regular
dese, called Gotheborg (since corrupted into Gotten- chaplain, is appropriated to their use. E. Long. 11.
burg), in honour of his duchy; upon his accession to the 44. N. Lat. 57. 40.
throne, he erected in his new town a trading company;
GOTTINGEN, a considerable town of Lower
drew thither many foreigners, particularly the Dutch, to Saxony in Germany, and in the duchy of Brunswick;
whom he allowed an exemption from all duties of export formerly free and imperial, but afterwards subject to the
and import during 20 years; a corps of English and elector of Hanover. Here his late majesty George II.
Vol. X. Part I.
founded an university. It is seated on the river Leine, night-scene, in which the moon and stars are introdu- Gondt 0 in E. Long. 9. 55. N. Lat. 51. 32.
ced with great success. 3. The angel with Tobit, who Goudt.
GOTTORP, a town of the duchy of Sleswick, in is drawing a fish by his side. The back-ground is a Gourguer. Denmark, and capital of the duchy of Holstein Got- landscape; the weeds in the fore-ground, and the torp, where the duke has a very fine palace,
branches of the trees in front, as well as the foliage GOUANIA, in Botany, a genus of plants belongs and weeds hanging from them, are beautifully expresing to the polygamia class. See BOTANY Index. sed.
4. The angel with Tobit, crossing a stream of
GOUDA, or Turgow, a considerable town of water: The back-ground, « landscape. 3. Baucis and
South Holland, in the United Provinces, remarkable Philemon entertaining Jupiter and Mercury. 6. A
for its stately church. It is seated on the river Issel, landscape, called the Aurora, representing the dawn of
in E. Long. 4. 36. N. Lat. 52. 1.
day. The effect is very beautiful. 7. The beheading
GOUDT, HENRY, usually called Count Goudt, was of St John in prison, a very small opright oval print,
born of a noble family at Utrecht, in 1570 ; and was which is by far the scarcest.
a knight of the Palatinate. Being passionately fond of GOVERNMENT, in general, is the polity of a
the arts, particularly painting and engraving, and de- state, or an orderly power constituted for the public
sirous of engaging in them, he applied himself diligent- good.
ly to drawing, and made a great proticiency therein. Civil government was instituted for the preservation
He went to Rome to examine the works of the great and advancement of men's civil interests, and for the
masters in that city. Here he contracted an intimacy better security of their lives, liberties, and properties.
with that excellent artist Adam Elsheimer ; studied The use and necessity of government is such, that there
his manner of penciling, designing, and colouring ; never was an age or country without some sort of civil
and made his works models for bis own imitation. authority : but as men are seldom unanimous in the
He pre-engaged all the pictures that his friend and means of attaining their ends, so their differences in
favourite could huish, and even paid liberally for opinion in relation to government have produced a va.
them before-hand; by which means he found bimself riety of forms of it. To enumerate them would be to
in possession of a most desirable treasure. Those pic. recapitulate the history of the whole earth. But, ac-
tures which Goudt himself painted were neatly and de- cording to Montesquieu, and most other writers, they
licately touched, in colour and pencil resembling El. may, in general, be reduced to one of these three kinds.
sheimer, though they were in no degree equal to the 1. The republican. 2. The monarchial. 3. The des-
paintings of that admirable master. On his return to potic. The first is that, where the people in a body,
bis native country, a young woman, who was in love or only a part of the people, have the sovereign power ;
with bim, and desirous of fixing his affections upon the second, where one alone governs, but by fixed and
her, gave him in his drink a love philtre : wbich, how. established laws; but in the despotic government, one
ever, terminated in a very melancholy manner, by de person alone, without law and without rule, directs
priving bim totally of his senses; and in the dreadful every thing by his own will and caprice. See the arti-
state of idiotism he dragged on a miserable life to the cle Law, No 1. 3-10. On the subject of govern-
age of 66, his death happening in 1636. It is re- ment at large, see Montesquieu's L'Esprit des Loir,
markable, that though lost to every other subject, when l. 2. c. I. ; Locke, ii. 129, &c. quarto edition, 1768;
painting was spoken of he would discourse upon it in a Sidney on government; Sir Thomas Smith de Repub.
very rational manner.
Angl. and Acherly's Britannic Constitution. As lo
Goudt practised engraving as well as painting, and Gothic government, its original and faults, &c. see
made seven beautiful prints after the pictures of Elshei. Montesquieu's L'Esprit des Loir, l. 11, c. 8. See
mer, which are well known to the curious, and are to Feodal System in this work, and GOVERNMENT in
be met with in most choice collections. He worked the SUPPLEMENT.
with the graver only, in a very neat style ; and produ- GOVERNMENT is also a post or office, which gives a
ced a most powerful effect, not by strengthening the person the power or right to rule over a place, a city,
strokes, according to the osual method, but by crossing or a province, either supremely or by deputation.
them with additional strokes, equally neat, and that GOVERNMENT is likewise used for the city, coun-
five or six times, one over another, in the deep shadows. try, or place to which the power of governing is ex-
Considering the precision with which he executed his tended.
engravings, the freedom of bandling the graver which GOUGE, an instrument used by divers artificers,
may be discovered in them is very astonishing. The being a sort of round bollow chisel ; serving to cut
weeds and other parts of the fore-ground in that ad- holes, channels, grooves, &c. in wood, stone, &c.
mirable print of the Ceres, are very finely expressed. GOULART, SIMON, a famous minister of Geneva,
The heads of the figures are correctly drawn, and the was boru at Senlis in 1543 ; and was one of the most
other extremities are managed in a judicious manner. indefatigable writers of bis time. He made consider-
The seven prints done by him from Elsheimer, men- able additions to the Catalogue of witnesses of the truth,
tioned above, are, 1. Ceres drinking from a pitcher. composed by Illyricus ; and acquired a great reputation
An old woman appears holding a candle at the door of by his works; the principal of which are, 1. A trans-
the cottage, and a boy naked standing by her is laugh- lation of Seneca. 2. A collection of memorable bisto-
ing and pointing at the goddess; for which contemptries. 3. A translation of St Cyprian De lapsis. 4. Se-
he was metamorphosed by her into a frog. The power- veral devotional and moral treatises. He died at Ge-
ful and striking effect of this engraving cannot be pro-
neva in 1628.
perly described. This print is distinguished also by the GOURD. See CUCURBITA, BOTANY Index.
name of the sorcery. 2. The flight into Egypt: A GOURGUES, DOMINIQUE, an illustrious French,