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applied himse of the othen philosophica vanta

those studies. He read Cicero, Plato, and Aristotle. The reading of Cicero procured him this advantage, that the lectures he afterwards read on philosophical subjects were as eloquent as those of the other masters were barbarocs. He also applied himself early to the mathematics. His continual study drew upon him a long fit of sickness, which obliged him to leave Paris. On his recovery, he returned and studied physic, and at the same time taught philosophy in the college of St. Barbara. After taking the degree of M. D. he improved himself in the mathematics, as far as the business of his profession would allow him. Never was man more diligent than Fernel. He studied, read lectures, and visited patients from four in the morning till eleven at night, without intermission. In the course of these studies, he invented mathematical instruments. But his wife murmuring at the expense, he dismissed his instrument-maker, and applied himself solely to the practice of physic, and to reading lectures upon Hippocrates and Galen.

This soon gained him a great reputation, and increased his business ; notwithstanding which, he found time to compose a treatise on “Physiology," and another “De Vinæ Sectione," upon both of which he lectured for several years. While he was thus employed, he was sent for to court, to try whether he could cure a lady, whose recovery was despaired of. He accomplished the cure which was the first cause of that esteem which Henry II., who was the dauphin, and was in love with that lady, conceived for him. This prince offered him the place of first physician to him, but Fernel preferring his studies to the luxury of a court, declined the employment. When Henry came to the throne, he renewed his offers, which Fernel still declined, but was at last prevailed on to accept of the office. He died in 1558, leaving behind him many other works, as, “ De abditis rerum causis," seven books of “ Pathology," a book on Remedies, &c., which have been repeatedly printed, with his life prefixed, written by William Plautius his disciple.

JOHN CHAMBER, or CHAMBRE, a learned physician, was one of the founders of the college of physicians, London; he was educated in Merton college in Oxford, of which he was fellow. He took his degree of master of arts in 1502; after which he travelled into Italy, and studied physic at Padua, where he took his degree of doctor in that faculty. After his return, Henry VIII. made him his physician, and with Thomas Linacre, and others, founded the college of physicians. Dr. Chamber being in holy orders, was made, in 1510, canon of Windsor, and in 1524 archdeacon of Bedford, and was likewise prebenda:y of Comb and Harnham in the cathedral church of Sarum. In 1525 he was made warden of Merton college ; and about the same time dean of the royal chapel and college adjoining to Westminster-hall. He built to it a very curious cloister, at the expense of 11,000 marks, and gave the 'canons

1945. He died LACUNA, an in the yea

of that chapel some lands, which he saw, upon the dissolution of the monasteries, taken into the king's hands. Afterwards he was made treasurer of Wells cathedral, beneficed in Somersetshire and Yorkshire, and probably had other dignities and preferments. October 29, 1531, he was incorporated doctor of physic at Oxford. In May, 1543, he resigned his office of treasurer of Wells ; and his wardenship of Merton college in 1545. He died in 1549. He never published any thing.

ANDREW LACUNA, an eminent Spanish physician, was born at Segovia, in Old Castile, in the year 1499. He studied philosophy at Salamanca, and afterwards went to Paris, partly for the purpose of improving his knowledge of the Greek language, and partly for the study of medicine. He took a degree in that capital, but probably only that of master of arts. In 1536, he returned to Spain, and followed the courses established in the colleges of Alcala, Henarrez, and Toledo, in the latter of which he received the honours of the doctorate, After this he immediately repaired to the Low Countries, in consequence of a command from the emperor Charles V., and he passed the greater part of his life at the court of that monarch. In 1540, he went to the imperial city of Metz, and resided there five or six years, rendering great services to the citizens during the prevalence of an epidemic pestilence: and by his influence, thus acquirel', he contributed to strengthen their adherence to the church of Rome and to the emperor. He visited Italy, Germany, and France again, where he received many honours from the learned corporations, and at Rome was created count palatine, and knight of the order of St. Peter. He died in his native country in the beginning of the year 1560.

He proved himself a learned critic by the corrections and commentaries on the works of Dioscorides, and on many parts of those of Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, &c. His own works are numerous, consisting of a treatise on anatomy; an account of the epidemic at Metz; a life of Galen, an epitome of his works, and notes on the labours of his translators, &c. He likewise published a treatise on gout, on excrescences in the neck of the bladder, and on diet, and an epistle to Cornaro; and he translated the works of Dioscorides into Spanish.

MARTIN AKABIA, a native of Chalons, professor of medicine at Paris. He was surnamed Harmless, which he altered to the Greek word Akabia. He published translations of Galen's writings, and died 1551. His son, of the same name, was physician to Henry III., and wrote medical treatises de morbis muliebribus,---consilia medica, &c. and died 1588, aged eighty-nine,

ALSAHARAIRUS, an Arabian physician, author of a me, dical work entitled Altasrif.

WILLIAM BUTTS, an eminent English physician, was brought up at Gonville hall, Cambridge, where he proceeded to his degrees in physic, and afterwards became physician and favourite of Henry VIII., who conferred upon him the honour: of knighthood. He was one of the founders of the royal college of physicians at London, and is mentioned in their records with great honour. He was a favourer of the Reformation, and was intimate with archbishop Cranmer. Shakspeare introduces him into his play of Henry VIII., as a friend of that great prelate. He died in 1545.

THOMAS VICARY, a native of London, who was sergeant surgeon to Henry VIII., and his three successors in the kingdom. He was also chief surgeon of St. Bartholomew's hospital; and published a book entitled, “ A profitable Treatise of the Anatomy of Man's Body,” 12mo. 1577.

WILLIAM BĂILZIE, or BAILLIE, a physician, was born in Scotland, and after receiving his education in his native country, went to Italy, where he studied medicine with great reputation, and was made rector, and afterwards professor of medicine in the university of Bologna, about the year 1484. In his theory he adopted the system of Galen, in preference to the emprize, and wrote “Apologia pro Galeni doctrina contra Empiricos," Lyons, 1552, 8vo. Dempster says that he returned to Scotland before his death, the date of which is not mentioned. Mackenzie thinks he also wrote a book published in 1600, 8vo. “ De Quantitate syllabarum Græcorum, et de Dialectis.”

RELAND CAPELLUTIUS, a distinguished physician and philosopher, under the pontificate of Paul II. published in 1490, “ Chirurgia," printed at Venice in fol. and reprinted with additions in 1509 and 1546. It contains the whole body of surgery collected principally from Albucasis, and other Arabian writers. A posthumous work of this writer was published at Franckfort in 1642, 8vo. reprinted in 1648, 4to. and again in 1682, Svo.; “ De Curoti suæ Pestifeorum Apossematum," a practical work much esteemed.

ANTHONY LE COQ, a Parisian physician, graduated in the faculty of that city, and practised there with great reputation until his death, which took place on the 28th of March, 1550. He was elected dean of his faculty in 1538, and in the following year was called, in consultation with Fernel, to visit the French king, Francis I. who had contracted the venereal disease. He showed his knowledge of the nature of the disease by insisting, in opposition to Fernel, who was not disposed to employ any other remedy than his antivenereal opiate, that mercurial frictions were necessary; but his mode of proposing it evinced that he was a novice in the manners of a court. He observed to Fernel, speaking of the king, “ C'est un vilain qui a gagné la vérole; frottetur comme un antre, et comme le dernier de son royaume, puisque il s'est gaté de la même manière." This was reported to the king, who laughed, and was pleased with his frankness.

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