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the army! The victories which we have just gained have given the French soldier his true character. I am everything to him. Let the Directory attempt to deprive me of my command and they will see who is master. The nation must have a head, a head rendered illustrious by glory and not by theories of government, fine phrases, or the talk of idealists, of which the French understand not a whit. Let them have their toys and they will be satisfied. They will amuse themselves and allow themselves to be led, provided the goal is cleverly disguised."
THE TREATIES OF CAMPO FORMIO AND OF
The Treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville are closely related, since the results of Bonaparte's victories in 1796-7, which led to the former, were not permanently undone by the temporary reverses experienced by the French during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt. Hence, after Marengo and Hohenlinden, we have in the treaty of Lunéville the ratification of the agreements, both public and secret, of Campo Formio. The provisions of the treaties illustrate the unscrupulous manner in which Austria and France disposed of the lesser European States. The negotiations at Campo Formio inaugurated the system of rapid territorial redistribution which characterizes the Napoleonic Period.
References :-Fyffe, Modern Europe, Vol. I; Häusser Deutsche Geschichte, Bd. II.
The most important open articles of the treaty of Campo Formio are as follows: Art. I provides for a perpetual and inviolable peace between the contracting parties. Art. III reads: "His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, renounces for himself and his successors, in favor of the French Republic, all rights and titles to the former Belgian Provinces known under the name of the Austrian Netherlands. .." Art. V: “His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, consents that the French Republic shall possess in complete sovereignty the former Venetian Islands of the Levant, to wit : Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, Santa Maura, Cerigo and other islands dependent upon them, as well as Butrinto, Arta, Vonizza, and in general all former Venetian stations in Albania, which are situated below the Gulf of Drino.” 1 Art. VI : “ The French Republic consents that His Majesty the Emperor and King, shall possess, with all sovereign and proprietary rights, the lands designated below, to wit: Istria, Dalmatia, the Islands of the Adriatic formerly belonging to Venice, the Mouths of the Cattaro, the City of Venice, the Lagunes, and the territories included between the hereditary possessions of His Majesty the Emperor and King, and a line, which, starting in Tyrol” and crossing the Lake of Garda to La Cise, was to follow the Adige, the Canale Bianco and the Po to the Adriatic. Art. VIII : “ His Majesty the
Situated immediately north of Durazzo.
Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, recognizes the Cisalpine Republic as an independent power. This republic includes the former Austrian possessions in Lombardy, Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, the Town and Fortress of Mantua, with their surrounding territories, Peschiera, that portion of the former possessions of Venice to the west and south of the line designated in Art. VI as the frontier of the Italian possessions of His Majesty the Emperor, Modena, the Principality of Massa and Carrara and the three Legations of Bologna, Ferrara and Romagna.” Art. XVIII: “His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, engages to cede to the Duke of Modena, an indemnity for the possessions which this prince and his heirs held in Italy, the Breisgau, which he shall hold upon the same conditions in virtue of which he possessed Modena." Art. XX: “A Congress shall be held at Rastadt, composed exclusively of the plenipotentiaries of the Germanic Empire and of the French Republic, with a view to the establishment of peace between these powers. The Congress shall be opened a month after the signing of the present treaty, or sooner if possible.” The other articles deal with the raising of sequestration, the responsibility for debts, the cessation of hostilities,
SECRET ARTICLES OF THE TREATY OF CAMPO FORMIO,
OCTOBER 17, 1797. Translated from the French version in Martens, Recueil des principaux Traités,
Tome VI, pp. 426, sqq. ARTICLE I.--His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, consents that the limits of the French Republic shall extend to the line designated below and pledges himself to use his good offices in order that, in establishing peace with the German Empire, the French Republic may obtain this same boundary, to wit :
The left bank of the Rhine from the Swiss frontier below Basle to the confluence of the Nette above Andernach, including the tête de pont at Mannheim on the right bank of the Rhine and the town and fortress of Mainz, both banks of the Nette, from its mouth to its source near Bruch, from here a line passing through Senscherode and Borlei to Kerpen and from this town to Udelhofen, Blankenheim, Marmagen, Jactenigt, Cale and Gmünd, including the suburbs and surrounding districts of these places, then the two banks of the Olff to its junction with the Roer, the two banks of the Roer including Heimbach, Nideggen, Düren, and Jülich, with their suburbs and surrounding districts as well as the villages on the river and their surrounding districts as far as Limnich ; from here a line passing Roffems and Thalens, Dalen, Hilas, Papdermod, Laterforst, Radenberg, Haversloo (if this lies upon
the line), Anderheide, Kalderkirchen, Wambach, Herringen and Grobray with the town of Venloo and its surrounding territory. If, in spite of the good offices of His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, the German Empire should not consent to the acquisition by the French Republic of the frontier above indicated, His Majesty, the Emperor and King, formally engages not to furnish more than his contingent to the army of the Empire, which may not be employed in the fortresses without thereby interfering with the peace and amity just established between his said Majesty and the French Republic.
ART. II.—His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, will further use his good offices during the negotiations for peace with the German Empire in order that, First, the navigation of the Rhine shall be free to the French Republic and to the states of the Empire situated on the right bank of this river from Hüningen to the point where it reaches the Batavian Republic;
Secondly, to arrange that the one in possession of that part of Germany opposite the mouth of the Moselle shall never upon any pretext whatsoever hinder the free navigation and exit of boats or other craft from the mouth of this river ;
Thirdly, that the French Republic shall enjoy the free navigation of the Meuse, and that all tolls and other dues which may be established from Venloo to the point where the river enters Batavian territory, shall be suppressed.
ART. III.—His Majesty the Emperor and King, renounces, on his own part and for his successors, the sovereignty over, and possession of, the County of Falkenstein' and its dependencies, in favor of the French Republic.
ART. IV.-The territories which His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, is to possess in virtue of Article VI of the open, definitive treaty signed this day, shall serve as an indemnity
, for those territories which he cedes by Articles III and VII of the open treaty and by the preceding article. This cession shall not, however, have force until the troops of His Majesty the Emperor and King shall occupy the territory acquired by the said article.
1 The places mentioned in this article are, with few exceptions, too insignificant to be found even on good maps.
2 A isolated bit of Austrian territory about twenty miles west of Worms.
ART. V.-The French Republic will employ its good offices in order that His Majesty the Emperor may acquire in Germany the Archbishopric of Salzburg, and that portion of the Circle of Bavaria situated between the Archbishopric of Salzburg, the rivers Inn and Salzach and Tyrol, including the city of Wasserburg on the right bank of the Inn, with the surrounding territory within a radius of 3000 toises."
ART. VI.--His Majesty the Emperor and King agrees to cede to the French Republic, when peace shall be concluded with the Empire, the sovereignty and possession of the Frickthal, as well as all the possessions of the House of Austria on the left bank of the Rhine between Zurzach' and Basle, provided that in the above-mentioned peace His Majesty shall obtain a proportionate compensation in Germany which shall be satisfactory.
The French Republic shall unite the said districts to the Helvetian Republic, according to an arrangement to be made between the said countries, without prejudice, however, to His Majesty the Emperor and King, or to the Empire.
ART. VII.-It is understood between the two contracting powers that if, in arranging the pending peace with the German Empire, the French Republic shall make an acquisition in Germany, His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, shall obtain an equivalent there, and conversely if His Royal and Imperial Majesty make an acquisition of this kind, the French Republic shall similarly receive an equivalent.
ART. VIII.-A territorial indemnity shall be given to the Prince of Nassau-Dietz, formerly Stadtholder of Holland, but this territorial indemnity shall not be chosen in the neighborhood of the Austrian possessions nor of the Batavian Republic.
ART. IX.-The French Republic will find no trouble in restoring to the King of Prussia his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine. Hence there will be no question of any new acquisitions on the part of the King of Prussia. To this the contracting parties mutually pledge themselves.
1 Wasserburg lies on the left bank of the Inn. * Equals about 6.4 English feet.
8 Zurzach is on the Rhine above Basle, and the territory in question, to the south of the river, forms geographically a part of Switzerland.
ART. X.-If the King of Prussia consents to cede to the French Republic and to the Batavian Republic certain small portions of his possessions upon the left bank of the Meuse', as well as the enclave of Zevenaar and other possessions toward the Yssel, His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, will employ his good offices to render the said cessions practicable, and to cause them to be recognized by the German Empire. The failure to carry out the present article shall not affect the preceding one.
ART. XI.—His Majesty the Emperor will not oppose the disposition which the French Republic has made in favor of the Ligurian Republic of the Imperial Fiefs.? His Majesty the Emperor will unite his efforts with those of the French Republic to induce the German Empire to renounce such rights of suzerainty as it may have in Italy, especially over the districts which form a part of the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics, as well as over the Imperial Fiefs, such as Lusignana and all those lying between Tuscany and the possessions of Parma, the Ligurian and Luccan Republics, and the former territory of Modena, the which fiefs shall form a part of the Cisalpine Republic.
ART. XII.-His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, and the French Republic, will unite their efforts in order that, in negotiating peace with the German Empire, the different Princes and States of the Empire which shall suffer losses of territory and of rights in consequence of the stipulations of the present treaty of peace, or, later, in consequence of the treaty which shall be concluded with the German Empire, shall obtain appropriate indemnities in Germany; which indemnities shall be determined in common accord with the French Republic. This applies especially to the Electors of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, the Elector Palatine of Bavaria, the Duke of Würtemberg and Teck, the Margrave of Baden, the Duke of Zweibrücken, the Landgraves of Hesse-Cassel and of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Princes of Nassau-Saarbrücken, of Salm-Kyrburg, Löwenstein-Wertheim and of Wiedrunkel and the Count of Leyen.
ART. XIII.—The troops of His Majesty the Emperor shall evacuate within twenty days after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, the city and fortress of Mainz, Ehrenbreitstein, Philippsburg, Mannheim, Königsstein, Ulm and Ingolstadt, as well as
1 A portion of Ober-Geldern, west and north of Venloo. 2 These had been annexed to the Ligurian Republic.